Medieval Timeline - View the Entire Timeline

All Timeline Events (315 entries)

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400
- Battle of Frigidius
- Invasion of Roman Empire
- Saxon Invaders Attack Britain
- Romans Leave Britain
- Pelagian Controversy Begins
- Possible Return of Roman Troops to Britain
- Overthrow of the Tsin
- Liu Song Dynasty Begins
- St. Germanus of Auxerre Visits Britain
- St. Patrick's Return to Ireland
- Angle, Saxon, and Jute Invasions Begin
450
- Battle of Campus Mauriacus
- Death of Atilla the Hun
- Ostrogoths Gain Independence
- The Vandals Sack Rome
- Ecclesiastical Council of Arles
- Britons Largely Take Armorica
- Fall of the Western Roman Empire
- Last Roman Emperor in the West
- Arrival of the Saxons
- Liu Song Dynasty Ends
- Founding of the Ch'i Dynasty
- Qi Dynasty Begins
- The Acacian Schism
- Conquest of Sussex
- Conquest of Kent
- Conversion of Clovis I
- Qi Dynasty Ends
- Founding of the Liang Dynasty
- Death of Clovis I
- Battle of Mount Badon
- Founding of the Kingdom of Wessex
- Acacian Schism Ends
- Saxon Expansion in England
- Six Garrisons Army Defeated
- Founding of Mount Cassino and the Bendictine Order
- Chen Qingzhi Briefly Captures Luoyang
- Corpus Luris Civilis: The Code of Civil Law
- Conquest of the Isle of Wight
- The Northern Wei Dynasty Ends
- Cerdic Dies
- The Eastern Wei Dynasty Begins
- War Begins Between Northern Wei Successors
- The Western Wei Dynasty Begins
- Eastern Wei Attack Western Wei
- Founding of Northumbria
- The Eastern Wei Dynasty Ends
550
- St. David's Mission to Wales
- Foundation of Mercia
- Founding of East Anglia
- The Northern Qi Dynasty Begins
- The Liang Dynasty Ends
- The Chen Dynasty Begins
- The Western Wei Dynasty Ends
- The Northern Zhou Dynasty Begins
- Bangor Abbey Founded
- Foundation of Iona Monastery
- St. Columba Founds Iona
- Birth of Mohammad
- Battle of Deorham
- The Northern Qi Dynasty Ends
- War Between Northern Wei Successors Ends
- Battle of Faddiley
- The Chen Dynasty Ends
- The Northern Zhou Dynasty Ends
- Augustine Reaches Canterbury
- St. Columba Dies
- Construction of St. Paul's
- The Bangor Massacre
- Ethelfrith, Founder of Northumbria Dies
- Edwin Becomes King of Northumbria
- Death of Aethelbert I
- Founding of the T'ang Dynasty
- Conquest of the Isle of Man
- Penda Becomes King of Mercia
- Sutton Hoo Burial
- Conversion of Edwin
- Death of Mohammad
- Invasion of Palestine
- King Edwin of Northumbria Dies
- Battle of Heavenfield
- Founding of Lindisfarne Monastery
- Conquest of Iran
- Conquest of Egypt
- King Oswald of Northumbria Dies
- Battle of Maserfield
650
- Battle of Winwaed
- Caedmon Begins Writing Poetry
- Founding of Whitby Abbey
- King Oswy Calls the Synod of Whitby
- Theodore Named Archbishop of Canterbury
- King Oswy of Northumbria Dies
- Synod of Hertford
- Founding of Wearmouth Monastery
- Founding of Jarrow Monastery
- Battle of Nechtansmere
- Ine Becomes King of Wessex
- The Dome of the Rock Completed
- The Law code of Wihtred
- Moors Conquer Spain
- Beowulf is Composed
- Boniface Begins Mission to Germany
- Ine of Wessex Abdicates the Throne
- Bede Writes his History of the English
- Battle of Poitiers
- Introduction of the Silver Penny
- Birth of Charlemagne
- Foundation of Fulda Monastery
- The Abbasid Revolution in Khurasan
750
- Muslim Introduction of Papermaking
- The Book of Kells is Composed
- Battle of Benson
- Offa's Dyke Completed
- Sack of Iona
- New Bishopric at Lichfield
- Independent Idrisid Dynasty Established in Morocco
- Offa Annexes East Anglia
- Danes Raid Lindisfarne
- First Danish Raids in England
- Charlemagne's Coronation as Emperor
- Capture of Barcelona
- Election of King Egbert
- Battle of Ellendun
- Egbert Becomes Overlord of England
- Egbert Defeats the Danes
- Ęthelwulf's Reign Begins
- Foundation of Dublin
- Treaty of Verdun
850
- Kenneth I, First King of Scotland
- Ęthelwulf's Reign Ends
- Ęthelbald's Reign Begins
- Reign of Donald I
- Ęthalbald's Reign Ends
- Ęthelbert's Reign Begins
- Reign of Constantine I
- Conversion of Prince Boris
- Ęthelbert's Reign Ends
- Ęthelred's Reign Begins
- Reign of Ęthelred, King of Wessex
- Foundation of the Saffarid Dynasty
- Reign of Basil I
- First Printed Book
- Colonizing of Iceland
- Alfred the Great of England Crowned King of Wessex
- Ęthelred's Reign Ends
- Alfred Purchases a Truce
- Spread of the Cult of the Buddha Amida
- Chinese Peasants' Revolt
- Charles the Bald Becomes King of Italy
- Abbasids Lose Syria
- Guthrum Retreats and is Baptised
- Battle of Edington
- West Saxon Chronicle of England
- Anglo Saxon Chronicle
- Alfred the Great of England Dies
- Edward the Elder's Reign Begins
- Founding of the Later Liang Dynasty
- Foundation of Fatamid Dynasty
- Battle of Tettenhall
- Foundation of the Cluny Monastery
- Edward the Elder of England Dies
- Athelstan's Reign Begins
- Athelstan Takes York from the Danes
- Battle of Brunanburh
- Athelstan of England Dies
- Reign of Edmund I of England Begins
- Edmund I of England Dies
- Edred of England's Reign Begins
950
- Edred of England's Reign Ends
- Edwy of England's Reign Begins
- Magyars Defeated at the Battle of the Lechfeld
- Edwy of England Dies
- Edgar of England's Reign Begins
- Edgar Recognized as Supreme
- Edgar of England Dies
- Edward the Martyr of England's Reign Begins
- Edward the Martyr of England Dies
- Ethelred II of England's First Reign Begins
- Ethelred II of England's First Reign Ends
- Sweyn of Denmark Begins Reign of England
- Ethelred II of England's Second Reign Begins
- Sweyn of Denmark, King of England Dies
- Ethelred II of England Dies
- Canute the Great of England's Reign Begins
- Edmund II of England's Reign Begins
- Edward II of England Dies
- Abbadid Dynasty Begins
- Canute the Great of England Dies
- Harold Harefoot of England's Reign Begins
- Harold Harefoot of England Dies
- Hardicanute of England's Reign Begins
- Hardicanute of England's Reign Ends
- Edward III (the Confessor) of England's Reign Begins
- Abbad I Dies
1050
- Schism of East and West
- Edward III (the Confessor) of England Dies
- Harold II of England's Reign Begins
- Battle of Stamford Bridge
- Edgar Atheling of England's Reign Begins
- Harold II of England Dies
- Battle of Hastings
- Edgar Atheling of England's Reign Ends
- William I (the Conqueror) Crowned King of England
- Abbad II Dies
- Battle of Manzikert
- Battle of Manzikert
- Birth of Anna Comnena
- Alfonso VI of Castile Takes Toledo
- Oath of Salisbury
- William I (the Conqueror) of England Dies
- William II Crowned King of England
- Abbad III is Deposed
- Pope Urban II's Speech at Clermont
- Jews Massacred by Crusaders
- Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders
- Marriage of Henry I to Matilda
- William II of England Dies
- Henry I Crowned King of England
- Marriage of Matilda to the German Emperor Henry V
- The Loss of the White Ship
- Henry I of England Dies
- Stephen I Crowned King of England
- Battle of the Standard
- Battle of Lincoln
1150
- Henry Plantagenet Marries Eleanor of Aquitaine
- Stephen I of England Dies
- Henry II Crowned King of England
- Dermot MacMurrough Expelled from Ireland
- Baldwin IV, the Leper King, Crowned King of Jerusalem
- Conquest of Ulster
- Battle of Mont Gisard
- Philip II Augustus Orders Jews out of France
- Rebellion of the Young King
- Death of Baldwin IV, the Leper King
- Sibyl and Guy of Lusignan Crowned Queen and King of Jerusalem
- Death of Baldwin V
- Battle of Hattin
- Jerusalem surrenders to Saladin
- Henry II of England Dies
- Richard I (the Lionhearted) Crowned King of England
- Capture and Ransom of Richard I
- Richard I (the Lionhearted) of England Dies
- John Crowned King of England
- Marriage of King John
- The Beginning of the Fourth Crusade
- Constantinople Falls
- Genghis Khan and the Formation of the Mongol Empire
- The Children's Crusade
- The Fourth Council of the Lateran
- Magna Carta Signed
- John of England Dies
- Henry III Crowned King of England
- Issue of the Forest Charter
- Reign of Ferdinand III
- Battle of the Sajo River
- Battle at La Forbie
1250
- Pietro D. Abano is Born
- War of St. Sabas
- Edward I Crowned King of England
- Henry III of England Dies
- Alexander III of Scotland Killed
- Edward I of England Favors John Baliol in Scotland
- English Victory at Dunbar
- Battle of Stirling Bridge
- Edward I of England Dies
- Edward II Crowned King of England
- The Trial of the Templars
- Battle of Bannockburn
- Pietro D. Abano Dies
- Edward III Crowned King of England
- Edward II of England Deposed
- Edward II of England Dies
- Accession of King Philip VI of France
- Battle of Sluys
- Battle of Crecy
- Arrival of the Black Death
- Calais Falls to England
- Order of the Garter Established
1350
- Battle of Poitiers
- Edward III of England Dies
- Richard II Crowned King of England
- The Peasants' Revolt
- Execution of John Ball
- Richard II of England Deposed
- Henry IV Crowned King of England
- Richard II of England Dies
- Henry IV of England Dies
- Henry V Crowned King of England
- Cambridge Plot
- Death of John Hus
- Battle of Agincourt
- Treaty of Troyes
- Henry V of England Dies
- Henry VI Crowned King of England
- Execution of Joan of Arc
- Birth of Mehmet II
1450
- Fall of Cherbourgh
- Fall of Constantinople
- Battle of Castillon
- First Battle of St. Albans
- The Battle of Blore Heath
- King James II of Scotland Dies
- Battle of Towton
- Edward IV Crowned King of England
- Battle of Edgecote Moor
- Battle of Barnet
- Battle of Tewkesbury
- Henry VI of England Dies
- Edward IV of England Dies
- Edward V Accedes Throne of England
- Edward V of England Deposed
- Richard III Crowned King of England
- Richard III of England Dies
- Battle of Bosworth
- Henry VII Crowned King of England
1500
Battle of Frigidius
Date: 405 A.D.
Description:
Radagaesus recruited an army of reportedly 400,000 Germans and planned an invasion of Italy. Stilocho managed to scratch together a force of thirty Western Roman units amounting to only about 20,000 men.

Rather than taking a defensive stance, the Roman Commander instead actually crossed the Danube, and with a swift march, fell upon the German rear and utterly destroyed them.
Date added: 12.08.04
Region: Western Europe, Southern Europe, Germany, Italy
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Invasion of Roman Empire
Date: December 31st, 406 A.D.
Description:
The River Rhine in Central Europe freezes over, allowing hordes of Vandals, Alans, and Scieri to invade the Roman Empire, ultimately leading to its collapse.
Date added: 04.01.07
Region: Western Europe, Western Roman Empire
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Saxon Invaders Attack Britain
Date: 408 A.D.
Description:
During this invasion, the Britons defended themselves without the help of the Romans.
Date added: 06.06.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles
Category: Military, Society
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 27.

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Romans Leave Britain
Date: 410 A.D.
Description:
The Roman legions are withdrawn from Britain after Alaric, king of the Goths, sacks Rome.
Date added: 11.26.04
Region: Western Europe, Western Roman Empire, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Pelagian Controversy Begins
Date: 411 A.D.
Description:
Lasting until the year 418, Pelagianism was a heresy asserting that man could attain salvation by the exercise of his own free will, without the help of divine grace. Pelagius (c.360-c.420) a Welsh (or Irish) monk started the heresy. His doctrines were attacked by St. Jerome and St. Augustine of Hippo. Augustine formulated the doctrine of divine grace partly in opposition to Pelagius' teachings.
Date added: 11.26.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Wales, Ireland, England
Category: Religion, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Possible Return of Roman Troops to Britain
Date: 417 A.D.
Description:
It is likely that Roman troops returned briefly to Britain around this year.
Date added: 11.26.04
Region: Western Europe, Western Roman Empire, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Overthrow of the Tsin
Date: 420 A.D.
Description:
The kingdom of the Tsin that had ruled over southern China since 280 A.D. is overthrown and replaced by the Liu (Sung) dynasty.

The Tsin had originally been one of the three kingdoms that had succeeded the Han dynasty. These were the Wei in the north, the Shu in the west, and the Wu in the east. By 280 A.D. the Wei had defeated the other two kingdoms and came to dominate as the Tsin dynasty. Beginning in 304 A.D. China was ravaged by rampaging Turks, Tibetan, Hsiung-nu, and Mongolian hordes, and by 386 A.D. the Tsin effectively controlled only the southern part of China below the Yangtze River. Northern China fell under the control of the rival Northern Wei, founded by the Turks.
Date added: 12.08.04
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics, Military, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Liu Song Dynasty Begins
Date: 420 A.D.
Description:
Liu Song dynasty replaces the Eastern Jin in the south.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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St. Germanus of Auxerre Visits Britain
Date: 429 A.D.
Description:
St. Germanus of Auxerre visits Britain to preach against the Pelagian heresy. He would also visit again later in the 430s.
Date added: 06.06.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles
Category: Religion, Society
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 27.

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St. Patrick's Return to Ireland
Date: c. 433 A.D.
Description:
St Patrick (The Patron Saint of Ireland) returned to Ireland with a missionary party circa 433.

As a boy Patrick had been captured by Irish raiders from a Romano-British family and taken to Northern Ireland as a slave. After six years he escaped to the continent where he trained as a priest, and finally as a Bishop. He brought the Roman Church to Ireland.
Date added: 11.26.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Ireland
Category: Religion, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Angle, Saxon, and Jute Invasions Begin
Date: 449 A.D.
Description:
The first waves of Angle, Saxon and Jute invaders arrive in Britain.

Hengist (probably a Jute) and his brother Horsa are said by Bede to have come to Britain at the invitation of Vorigern, a Romano-British leader to help combat a threat from Pictish and Scottish Raiders. The brothers then revolted and seized Kent. Later, Kentish Kings are said to have claimed descent from Aesc (or Oisc), said to have been Hengist's son.

Hengist is reported to have been killed in battle at Aegelsthrop (probably Aylesford in Kent) circa 488.
Date added: 11.26.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England, Scotland
Category: Military, Society, Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Battle of Campus Mauriacus
Date: 451 A.D.
Description:
Having lost control of much of North Africa to the Vandals the Romans were required to utilize a large number of Barbarian allies in this battle against Attila's Huns.

The allied force drew up for battle with Aetius' Romans on the left flank; A large force of Visigoths on the right; and a mixed force of Franks, Alans, Sarmations, Saxons and Burgundians holding the center. A band of Armorican Britons (who it seems had become an independent kingdom) added additional reinforcement.

The center held a small hill from which they successfully repulsed the initial Hunnic attacks. The Visigoths counter-attacked and broke the opposing wing forcing Attila to break off the battle at nightfall and order a general retreat. The allies did not follow up on this victory.
Date added: 12.09.04
Region: Western Europe, Western Roman Empire
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Death of Atilla the Hun
Date: 453 A.D.
Description:
The 60-year-old Atilla the Hun dies. It is alleged that he died of of a burst blood vessel that he incurred during his wedding night exertions, following his marriage to a local blond German princess named Hildico.
Date added: 11.15.05
Region: Eastern Europe, Hungary
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Ostrogoths Gain Independence
Date: 454 A.D.
Description:
The Ostrogoths regain their independence from Hun overlordship.
Date added: 12.02.04
Region: Southeastern Europe
Category: Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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The Vandals Sack Rome
Date: 455 A.D.
Description:
The Vandals, under Genseric, sack Rome.
Date added: 11.28.04
Region: Western Europe, Western Roman Empire, Southern Europe, Italy
Category: Military, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Ecclesiastical Council of Arles
Date: 455 A.D.
Description:
An ecclesiastical council was held at Arles in Gaul. Representatives of the British church attended, and Pelagianism was still a concern.
Date added: 06.06.05
Region: Western Europe, France, British Isles
Category: Religion
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 30.

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Britons Largely Take Armorica
Date: c. 460 A.D.
Description:
By the 460s the Britons had largely taken Armorica (a Gaulish province), eventually changing it's name its name to Brittany and its language to Breton.
Date added: 06.06.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, France
Category: Military, Politics, Society
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 30.

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Fall of the Western Roman Empire
Date: 476 A.D.
Description:
During this year, the Western half of the Roman Empire collapsed after the fall of Rome to the Germanic tribes. The Eastern half of the Empire, (centered in Constantinople and called Byzantium at this point) would live on until 1453.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, Western Roman Empire
Category: Military, Politics, Society

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Last Roman Emperor in the West
Date: 476 A.D.
Description:
Romulus Augustus (also derogatively referred to as Romulus Augustulus), was the last Roman Emperor in the Western empire. He was deposed by the German King Odoacer.
Date added: 11.28.04
Region: Western Europe, Western Roman Empire
Category: Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Arrival of the Saxons
Date: 477 A.D.
Description:
Aelle and his Saxon followers settle in the area along the South coast of England that is now known as Sussex (a name which originates from south Saxons).
Date added: 11.28.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Liu Song Dynasty Ends
Date: 478 A.D.
Description:
The southern dynasty of Liu Song ends in China.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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Founding of the Ch'i Dynasty
Date: 479 A.D.
Description:
The Liu (Sung) dynasty in southern China, below the Yangtze River, is succeeded by the Ch'i dynasty.
Date added: 12.09.04
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Qi Dynasty Begins
Date: 479 A.D.
Description:
The southern dynasty of Qi begins in China.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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The Acacian Schism
Date: 484 A.D.
Description:
The increasingly Monophysite provinces of Egypt, Palestine and Syria began to raise concerns throughout the Church about a monophysite heresy. An attempt was made to try and resolve the differences between the supporters of Orthodoxy and Monophysitism through an edict authored by the Patriarch of Constantinople, Acacius. The Henotikon Edict of 482 was issued by the Byzantine Emperor Zeno I, notably, without first seeking approval from the pope. Pope Felix III came to power in 483, and the entire ordeal escalated. Patriarch Acacius ignored Pope Felix III's order to return to Rome to answer charges brought against him. At a synod in 484, Felix III irrevocably excommunicated Patriarch Acacius. Acacius was not informed in person by any messenger about his excommunication; instead, a piece of parchment with the order of excommunication written on it was pinned to the back of Acacius's robe during a service in St. Sophia. Acacius later discovered the parchment and excommunicated Pope Felix III right back. This led to a schism between the Churches that lasted for 35 years.
Date added: 09.01.05
Region: Byzantine Empire, Western Europe
Category: Religion
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout
Source information: Norwich, John Julius. A Short History of Byzantium. New York: Vintage Books, 1997. 57.

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Conquest of Sussex
Date: 491 A.D.
Description:
Aelle and his Saxon followers complete their occupation of Sussex.
Date added: 11.28.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Conquest of Kent
Date: 494 A.D.
Description:
The Jutes complete their occupation of Kent in southeastern England.
Date added: 11.28.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Conversion of Clovis I
Date: 496 A.D.
Description:
Clovis I of the Franks becomes a Christian.
Date added: 11.28.04
Region: Western Europe, France
Category: Religion, Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Qi Dynasty Ends
Date: 501 A.D.
Description:
The southern dynasty of Qi ends in China.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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Founding of the Liang Dynasty
Date: 502 A.D.
Description:
The Ch'i dynasty of Southern China, below the Yangtze river, is succeeded by the Liang dynasty.
Date added: 12.10.04
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Death of Clovis I
Date: November 27th, 511 A.D.
Description:
Clovis I, Merovingian founder of the Frankish kingdom, dies (approximately aged 45).
Date added: 04.01.07
Region: Northern Europe, Western Europe, France
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Battle of Mount Badon
Date: 518 A.D.
Description:
This victory of the British over the Saxons halted Saxon advances for about fifty years. Mount Badon is believed to be near Wimborne in Dorcetshire.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Society, Politics
Source information: Roberts, Clayton and Roberts, David, 3rd ed. A History of England. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998. 38.

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Founding of the Kingdom of Wessex
Date: 519 A.D.
Date added: 11.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter
Source information: Savage, Anne, trans. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. Goalming, Surrey: CLB International, 1984. 35.

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Acacian Schism Ends
Date: March 27th, 519 A.D.
Description:
A papal embassy arrives in Constantinople on March 25, 519, and is greeted by the future emperor, Justinian. Two days later in St. Sophia, Patriarch John proclaims that the churches in the West and in the East are one and then reads a statement condemning a list of heretics, including the previous patriarch Acacius. The breach between Rome and Constantinople caused by the Acacian Schism is healed.
Date added: 09.01.05
Region: Byzantine Empire, Western Europe
Category: Religion
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout
Source information: Norwich, John Julius. A Short History of Byzantium. New York: Vintage Books, 1997. 60-61.

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Saxon Expansion in England
Date: c. 527 A.D.
Description:
The Saxon kingdoms of Essex and Middlesex are established circa 527. The capital of Essex is thought to have been based at the old Roman city of London.
Date added: 11.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Society, Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Six Garrisons Army Defeated
Date: 528 A.D.
Description:
The invading mutinous Six Garrisons army of a million were defeated by 7000 calvary led by Erhchu chieftain Jung.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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Founding of Mount Cassino and the Bendictine Order
Date: 529 A.D.
Description:
Benedict of Nursia founds the Benedictine monastic order at Monte Cassino, south of Rome.
Date added: 11.30.04
Region: Western Europe, Southern Europe, Italy
Category: Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Chen Qingzhi Briefly Captures Luoyang
Date: 529 A.D.
Description:
Liang emperor Wudi sends Chen Qingzhi northward with 7000 men and briefly captures Luoyang.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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Corpus Luris Civilis: The Code of Civil Law
Date: April 8th, 529 A.D.
Description:
A man named Tribonian headed a group of men who compiled and edited all of the documents that made up the Roman system of government. Tribonian's codification of Roman law under the Emperor Justinian removed any repetitions, contradictions, and made sure nothing was incompatible with Christian teaching. These legal compilations can be broken down into three elements: Codex, the supreme authority in the courts, Pandects, writings of the ancient Roman jurists, and the Institutes, a handbook of extracts from the other two designed for use in the Imperial Law schools. This became the basis for what many other European countries would base their practice of both canon and civil law.
Date added: 07.25.05
Region: Byzantine Empire, Southeastern Europe
Category: Law and Legislation
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Conquest of the Isle of Wight
Date: 530 A.D.
Description:
Cerdic, the Saxon King of Wessex leads a successful invasion acoss the Solent to conquer the Isle of Wight.
Date added: 11.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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The Northern Wei Dynasty Ends
Date: 533 A.D.
Description:
The northern dynasty of Northern Wei ends in China.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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Cerdic Dies
Date: 534 A.D.
Description:
Cerdic, the Saxon king of Wessex dies.
Date added: 11.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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The Eastern Wei Dynasty Begins
Date: 534 A.D.
Description:
The northern dynasty of Eastern Wei begins in China.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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War Begins Between Northern Wei Successors
Date: 534 A.D.
Description:
A war in the north of China begins between the successors of the Northern Wei dynasty.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics, Military
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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The Western Wei Dynasty Begins
Date: 535 A.D.
Description:
The northern dynasty of Western Wei begins in China.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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Eastern Wei Attack Western Wei
Date: 537 A.D.
Description:
The Eastern Wei attack the Western Wei via Tong Pass but were unsuccessful. Yuwen Tai repulsed the attack.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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Founding of Northumbria
Date: 547 A.D.
Description:
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle the year 547 marks the commencement of the reign of King Ida, the founder of the dynasty of Northumbrian Kings. He established his center of power at Bamburgh, which he fortified with a wall. He seems to have ruled over all of what would become Northumbria (probably 7th century Danish name in origin) until his death in 560.

Ida's son Aeile succeeded him, but is thought to have controlled only the region of Deira (roughly modern day Yorkshire).

The title of 'king', when referring to Anglo-Saxon chieftains, should not be taken too literally. Usually they were elected for life from among the warlords with the best claim to lead the regional community. Often the kings would rule over no more than a few hundred households.
Date added: 11.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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The Eastern Wei Dynasty Ends
Date: 549 A.D.
Description:
The northern dynasty of Eastern Wei ends.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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St. David's Mission to Wales
Date: c. 550 A.D.
Description:
David (or Dewl) was the son of Sant, the ruler of Ceredigion. David was educated at Llanilltud Fawr. He established many monasteries and emerged as the leader of the Christian church in Wales at the Synod of Brevi held at Llanddewi Breli circa 550.

Today, he is recognized as the patron saint of Wales.
Date added: 12.05.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Religion, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Foundation of Mercia
Date: c. 550 A.D.
Description:
A kingdom established by the Angles (circa 550) who had begun to settle in the Trent valley in central England. The name derives from the Old English merce, meaning ''boundary people', for they were situated between the Anglo-Saxon settlements to the east and south and the Romano-British inhabitants who had been driven westward by the Barbarian invasions.

The leader of the first Angle settlement is thought to have been Icel, the founder of the Mercian dynasty, although the first recorded King was Cearl.
Date added: 12.05.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Founding of East Anglia
Date: c. 550 A.D.
Description:
The foundation of an East Saxon Kingdom in the area of modern-day Norfolk, Suffolk and part of Cambridgeshire was circa 550.
Date added: 12.05.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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The Northern Qi Dynasty Begins
Date: 550 A.D.
Description:
The northern dynasty of Northern Qi begins.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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The Liang Dynasty Ends
Date: 556 A.D.
Description:
The southern dynasty of Liang ends in China.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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The Chen Dynasty Begins
Date: 557 A.D.
Description:
The southern dynasty of Chen begins in China.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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The Western Wei Dynasty Ends
Date: 557 A.D.
Description:
The northern dynasty of Western Wei ends in China.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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The Northern Zhou Dynasty Begins
Date: 557 A.D.
Description:
The northern dynasty of Northern Zhou begins in China.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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Bangor Abbey Founded
Date: 560 A.D.
Description:
The Abbey at Bangor in Ireland is founded.
Date added: 12.05.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Ireland
Category: Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Foundation of Iona Monastery
Date: 563 A.D.
Description:
St Columba founds a monastery on the island of Iona, which lies west of Scotland. It would become the center of the Celtic church and a source of missionary activity into Northern England during the 7th century.
Date added: 12.05.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Scotland, England
Category: Religion, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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St. Columba Founds Iona
Date: c. 565 A.D.
Description:
St. Columba founds a monastery on the island of Iona, which lies off the west coast of Scotland.
Date added: 06.06.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles
Category: Religion
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 42.

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Birth of Mohammad
Date: 570 A.D.
Description:
The approximate year that the Prophet Mohammad, founder of the Islamic faith, was born.
Date added: 12.07.04
Region: Middle East
Category: Religion, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Battle of Deorham
Date: 577 A.D.
Description:
The West Saxons under Caewlin invade as far as the River Severn and defeat a British force at the Battle of Deorham, north of Bath, extending the territory of Wessex.

Caewlin's victory effectively seperated the Western Britons from those of the southwest and ensured the capture of Gloucester.
Date added: 12.06.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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The Northern Qi Dynasty Ends
Date: 577 A.D.
Description:
The northern dynasty of Northern Qi ends in China.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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War Between Northern Wei Successors Ends
Date: 577 A.D.
Description:
The war in the north of China between the successors of the Northern Wei dynasty ends.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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Battle of Faddiley
Date: 583 A.D.
Description:
This victory by a British force effectively stops the West Saxons from advancing into Wales.
Date added: 12.06.04
Region: British Isles, Wales, England
Category: Military, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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The Chen Dynasty Ends
Date: 588 A.D.
Description:
The southern dynasty of Chen ends in China.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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The Northern Zhou Dynasty Ends
Date: 588 A.D.
Description:
The northern dynasty of Northern Zhou ends.
Date added: 05.31.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Liang Jieming
Source information: Chronology of Chinese History and Culture - 7000 B.C. to A.D. 2004

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Augustine Reaches Canterbury
Date: 597 A.D.
Description:
Within a year after reaching Canterbury (the capital of the kingdom of Kent), Augustine was able to convert Ethelbert, the Kentish king, to Christianity.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Religion, Society, Politics
Source information: Roberts, Clayton and Roberts, David. A History of England, Third Edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998. 39.

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St. Columba Dies
Date: June 8th, 597 A.D.
Description:
The Irish missionary monk St. Columba died in Iona and was buried there. He had worked very successfully toward the conversion of northern Britain.
Date added: 06.06.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles
Category: Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 42.

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Construction of St. Paul's
Date: 607 A.D.
Description:
The first St.Paul's church is built in London.

(This is not today's existing cathedral that was designed by Sir Christopher Wren following the Great Fire of London in the 17th century.)
Date added: 12.06.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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The Bangor Massacre
Date: 615 A.D.
Description:
The barbaric Angles, after having crossed over England, finally reach the Irish Sea and massacre the Christian monks at their monastery in Bangor.
Date added: 12.06.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Ethelfrith, Founder of Northumbria Dies
Date: 616 A.D.
Description:
The Bernician warrior-king Ethelfrith, founder of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, dies. Ethelfrith had united the two kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira to form Northumbria.
Date added: 06.06.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Society
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 47.

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Edwin Becomes King of Northumbria
Date: 616 A.D.
Description:
After defeating Ethelfrith in battle, the Deiran heir Edwin becomes king of Northumbria. Northumbria had been formed when Ethelfrith, a Bernician, united the kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira. Edwin's victory sent the Bernician royal heirs into exile in Scotland.
Date added: 06.06.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Military, Society
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 47.

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Death of Aethelbert I
Date: February 24th, 616 A.D.
Description:
Aethelbert I, King of Kent (560 - 616), who issued the first code of Angle-Saxon laws, dies.
Date added: 04.01.07
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Founding of the T'ang Dynasty
Date: 618 A.D.
Description:
Li Shih-min, later to become the first T'ang Eamperor T'ang T'ai, having conquered all other rivals in the turmoil that followed the collapse of the Sui Dynasty, founds the T'ang Dynasty. This dynasty would ultimately extend China's frontiers further than any other Chinese Dynasty and survive until 906 A.D.
Date added: 04.06.06
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter
Source information: The Armies and Enemies of Ancient China, John P Greet (Wargames Research Group 1975).

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Conquest of the Isle of Man
Date: 620 A.D.
Description:
Edwin, the King of Northumbria, conquers the Isle of Man.

Edwin was the son of Aelle, King of Deira. He succeeded his father in 617. Edwin defeated Aethelric, King of Bernicia to become king of a united Northumbria.

Ultimately, he would be acknowledged as the Bretwalda (overlord) of all of England with the exception of Kent.
Date added: 12.07.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Penda Becomes King of Mercia
Date: c. 626 A.D.
Description:
The pagan Penda becomes the last King of Mercia.
Date added: 06.06.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Source information: Bede. Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Book III.

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Sutton Hoo Burial
Date: c. 627 A.D.
Description:
The Sutton Hoo burial took place circa 627.

This important site near Woodbridge in Suffolk was discovered in 1939 and is thought to have been the probable barrow of Raedwald, a 7th century King of East Anglia. The site contained a 24-meter boat and a host of golden artifacts and other treasure.

Rawedwald was the only king of East Anglia to become a Bretwalda. He is said to have once protected Edwin from Aethelfirth of Nothumbria whom he defeated at the battle of the River Idle (616). In later life he may have become partially Christianized.
Date added: 12.07.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Conversion of Edwin
Date: 627 A.D.
Description:
King Edwin of Northumbria married the Christian daughter of Aethelbert of Kent in 625. Edwin was converted to Christianity in 627 by St. Paulinua (a Roman missionary to England who was appointed Bishop in 625). In return King Edwin appointed Paulinua as Archbishop of York.
Date added: 12.07.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Religion, Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Death of Mohammad
Date: June 7th, 632 A.D.
Description:
The year of the death of the prophet Mohammad in Medina, Arabia (aged 62).

He was succeeded by Abu Bakr, who founded the Rashidun (or 'Right Guided') dynasty of Caliphs, which lasted through the rule of Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali until 661.
Date added: 12.07.04
Region: Middle East
Category: Religion, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Invasion of Palestine
Date: 633 A.D.
Description:
A Muslim army from Saudi Arabia begins the conquest of Palestine.

During the next seven years, these Muslim soldiers would extend Islamic influence into Syria (bringing them up against the mighty Byzantine Empire) and modern-day Iraq.
Date added: 12.08.04
Region: Middle East
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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King Edwin of Northumbria Dies
Date: 633 A.D.
Description:
Edwin dies at the Battle of Hatfield Chase.
Date added: 06.06.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 49.

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Battle of Heavenfield
Date: 634 A.D.
Description:
A battle between the Mericans and Welsh under Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd and the Northumbrian army of Oswald of Bernicia. Oswald won this battle and was able to reunite Bernicia and Deira and become king of all Northumbria.
Date added: 07.08.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England, Wales
Category: Military, Politics
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 49.

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Founding of Lindisfarne Monastery
Date: 635 A.D.
Description:
St. Aidan arrives on the island of Lindisfarne (Holy Island) from Iona with a group of Celtic monks. The monastery he founded there was to become an important missionary center and later a bishopric.

The monks from Lindisfarne went on to build numerous churches in Scotland and Northern England, but many of the monks withdrew to Iona when Lindisfarne accepted the Roman discipline after the synod of Whitby (664 A.D.).
Date added: 12.08.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Scotland
Category: Religion, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Conquest of Iran
Date: 638 A.D.
Description:
Muslim armies commence with the invasion of Iran. The Sassanian Empire, however, would put up a stiff resistance and so even as late as 650 A.D., the Arabic leaders would still not have control of the Southern Caspian coast.
Date added: 12.09.04
Region: Middle East
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Conquest of Egypt
Date: 639 A.D.
Description:
A Muslim army commenced the conquest of Egypt. This would be the first step that would ultimately see the whole of North Africa coming under Islamic control within seventy years.
Date added: 12.10.04
Region: Northern Africa
Category: Military, Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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King Oswald of Northumbria Dies
Date: 642 A.D.
Description:
Oswy, Oswald's brother, would take over the throne of Northumbria.
Date added: 07.08.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 49.

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Battle of Maserfield
Date: August 5th, 642 A.D.
Description:
King Penda of Mercia defeats King Oswald of Northumbria, and Oswald is killed during the battle.
Date added: 06.06.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics, Society
Source information: Bede. Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Book III.

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Battle of Winwaed
Date: November 15th, 655 A.D.
Description:
Oswiu of Bernicia defeats King Penda of Mercia at this battle. Penda dies during the battle.
Date added: 06.06.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics, Society
Source information: Bede. Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Book III.

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Caedmon Begins Writing Poetry
Date: c. 657 A.D.
Description:
St. Caedmon is credited with the earliest surviving poem written in Old English sometime after the establishment of Whitby Abbey in 657.

A common oxherd on the estates of Whitby Abbey, Caedmon was accepted as a monk when it was realized that he had a talent for writing songs and poems, often on religious subjects. Caedmon's poem is known from a nine-line snippet transcribed by Bede in his Ecclesiastical History.
Date added: 12.09.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Founding of Whitby Abbey
Date: 657 A.D.
Description:
Hild (or Hilda) was the granddaughter of Edwin, King of Northumbria. Born in 614 and baptized in 627, she had by 647 become the superior of a nunnery near Hartlepool. Her remarkable organizational skills led to the foundation of a new community at Whitby in Yorkshire, where the synod of 664 would later be held to resolve the differences between Roman and Celtic Christian practices.

Hild was the first Abbess of Whitby from 657 until her death in 680.
Date added: 12.09.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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King Oswy Calls the Synod of Whitby
Date: 664 A.D.
Description:
The decision of this council settled a difference between Celtic and Roman Christianity regarding the proper date for Easter. In siding with the Roman position, the decision of this council meant that Christendom would not be divided in England.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Religion, Politics, Society
Source information: Roberts, Clayton and Roberts, David. A History of England, Third Edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998. 39-40.

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Theodore Named Archbishop of Canterbury
Date: 669 A.D.
Description:
After the pope named Theodore of Tarsus the Archbishop of Canterbury, Theodore set out to organize the English church as one body. He had completed this task by the time of his death.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Religion, Politics, Society
Source information: Roberts, Clayton and Roberts, David. A History of England, Third Edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998. 40.

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King Oswy of Northumbria Dies
Date: 670 A.D.
Date added: 07.08.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 49.

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Synod of Hertford
Date: 672 A.D.
Description:
At this synod, Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, did much to reorganize the church's administration in England and create a more hierarchical structure. Theodore accomplished this through a variety of measures, including the creation of new bishops, as well as the dismantling of some large dioceses. He also ordered that each bishop confine activities within the area of his own diocese and prohibited the clergy and monks from wandering around without permission.
Date added: 11.07.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Religion
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 53.

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Founding of Wearmouth Monastery
Date: 674 A.D.
Description:
In this year St. Benedict Biscop founded a Benedictine monastery in Northumbria.
Date added: 11.07.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 54.

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Founding of Jarrow Monastery
Date: 681 A.D.
Description:
Jarrow monastery was founded by St. Benedict Biscop on the banks of the River Tyne in lands provided by King Ecgfrith of Northumbria. The monastery would become famous for the magnificent library furnished with books brought by Benedict from Rome.

The great Bede would die here in 735 A.D., having written his works, including a history of the Abbots of Jarrow, in the library.
Date added: 12.10.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Battle of Nechtansmere
Date: May 20th, 685 A.D.
Description:
In this battle King Bruide and the Picts annihilated King Ecgfrith's Northumbrian army, thus thwarting the Nothumbrians attempt to subjugate them.
Date added: 12.10.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Ine Becomes King of Wessex
Date: 688 A.D.
Date added: 03.19.06
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 77.

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The Dome of the Rock Completed
Date: 692 A.D.
Description:
The Dome of the Rock was the first great Umayyad monument to be completed after the conquest of Judea. This was also the first major monument of the Islamic faith and was built by the Caliph Abn al-Malik on the site of a Jewish Temple. Muslims believe that it was at this spot that the prophet Mohammad ascended to heaven. The Dome of the Rock became the holiest Muslim place after the Kaa'ba in Mecca.
Date added: 09.01.05
Region: Middle East
Category: Religion, Art and Architecture
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout
Source information: Konstam, Angus. Historical Atlas of the Crusades. New York: Checkmark Books, 2002, 18, 21.

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The Law code of Wihtred
Date: 695 A.D.
Description:
Wihtred, King of Kent (c.690-725) and who maintained Kentish independence against the growing expansion of the Kingdom of Mercia, issues one of the earliest known law codes in Britain.

Wihtred's law code, which dealt primarily with ecclesiastical matters, was to give considerable privileges to the church.
Date added: 12.10.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Law and Legislation, Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Moors Conquer Spain
Date: July 7th, 711 A.D.
Description:
The Moorish chief Tariq lands in Spain with a small Muslim army at the invitation of the rebel governor of Ceuta. The place where he landed would later become known as Jebel el-Tariq, ('the mountain of Tariq' or later 'Gibraltar'). The Arabs and their Moorish allies quickly defeated Roderick, the last Visigoth king of Spain at the battles of Guadelete and Ecija, and before the end of the year the Visigoth capital, Toledo, would fall without resistance. Within two years all except the northern mountainous regions of Spain would come under Muslim control.
Date added: 05.07.05
Region: Western Europe, Southern Europe, Iberian Peninsula, Spain
Category: Politics, Military, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Beowulf is Composed
Date: c. 715 A.D.
Description:
Beowulf is an Anglo-Saxon epic poem written between 672 and 782. It tells the story of a fictional hero, Beowulf, the nephew of the king of the Gaetas (a southern Swedish people). Beowulf slays Grendel, a monster that has been ravaging a neighboring Danish kingdom, and also Grendel's mother. Later, when Beowulf is King of the Gaetas, his kingdom is attacked by a dragon, which he kills, although he is fatally wounded during the battle.

The poem sheds some light on aristocratic Anglo-Saxon traditions and some of the characters are historical.
Date added: 12.11.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Society, Education, Literature
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Boniface Begins Mission to Germany
Date: 718 A.D.
Description:
St. Boniface (680-755) was born in Crediton and his original name was Winfirth.

In 718 Pope Gregory II in Rome gave him the name 'Boniface' and sent him on a mission to convert the Saxons of Germany. St. Boniface built many monasteries and churches and was responsible for the winning of many converts to the Christian faith.

He was martyred at Dekkum in 755 A.D.
Date added: 12.11.04
Region: Western Europe, Germany
Category: Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Ine of Wessex Abdicates the Throne
Date: 726 A.D.
Description:
King Ine of Wessex abdicates his throne in Wessex.
Date added: 03.19.06
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 77.

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Bede Writes his History of the English
Date: 731 A.D.
Description:
Bede (673-735) was an Anglo-Saxon scholar who was born in Northumbria and spent most of his life in Jarrow monastery. He was a student of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew and became so renowned a scholar that following his death he was honored with the title 'The Venerable Bede'.

His The Ecclesiastical History of the English People was completed in 731 and is considered to be the most important history record written before the sixteenth century. Bede also popularized the method of dating known as anno domini (or A.D.), and wrote about a number of other subjects including physical science, rhetoric, and astronomy.

King Alfred the Great supervised the translation of Bede's work into Old English.
Date added: 12.11.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Society, Education
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Battle of Poitiers
Date: October 25th, 732 A.D.
Description:
The real power behind the throne of the Frankish King Thierry IV was Charles Martel (the Hammer), the Mayor of the Palace. A tough soldier, Charles had proved his worth many times in battle against rebellions factions within the Frankish empire. For many years the Moslems of Spain had been threatening Gaul. In 725 an invading army had penetrated as far as Burgundy, but it had been bought off by Duke Eudes, much to Charles' disfavour. In 732 Abd-er-Rahman, the Governor of Spain, crossed the Pyrenees with an immense army, and advanced as far as the River Loire. In October, Charles' Franks engaged Abd-er-Rahman at the Battle of Poitiers outside of the town of Tours. During the battle the Moorish Governor was slain and the remains of his army beat in retreat back to Spain. This battle, perhaps one of the most important in European history, would ensure the survival of Christian civilisation in Western Europe
Date added: 09.01.05
Region: Western Europe, France
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Introduction of the Silver Penny
Date: c. 735 A.D.
Description:
King Offa of Mercia (757-796) seized power after the civil war that followed the death of his cousin Aethelbert. Offa consolidated control over the southern English, expanded Mercian territory to the north, and through the marriages of his daughters to the Kings of Wessex and Northumbria established his claim as the Bretwalda of England.

Recognized by Pope Adrian I as 'The King of the English' he agreed to the establishment of an Archbishop at Lichfield which would free the Mercian church from the control of Canterbury. In addition he would negotiate a trade treaty with the future emperor Charlemagne on equal terms.

His most long lasting legacy however would be the creation of a new coinage based on the silver penny which bore his name and title. This would be the standard coin in circulation in England until the introduction of the gold coins during the 14th century.
Date added: 12.15.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Economy, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Birth of Charlemagne
Date: April 8th, 742 A.D.
Description:
This is the date of the birth of Carolus Magnus (Charles the Great, or Charlemagne). Charlemagne was the son of the Merovingian mayor of the palace, Pepin the Short. Charlemagne would inherit the northern Frankish lands following the death of his father (crowned king by Pope Stephen II in 754) and those of his brother, Carloman, in 771. After assisting the Pope in the defeat of the Lombards in Italy, he was crowned as the King of the Lombards. After subduing and Christianizing the Saxon tribes of northern Germany, Charlemagne would gain control of large areas of Saxony. A campaign in Spain would add further lands between the Pyrenees and the Llobregat. Bavaria was incorporated in the kingdom in 788, and the Avar people were subdued between 791 and 796. With much of Western Europe under his rule, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor, thereby founding the Holy Roman Empire.

Although he never learned to read, during Charlemagne's reign a renaissance of learning began in Western Europe. With leading scholars (such as the Northumbrian Alcuin) in his service, the Frankish King revised Frankish Laws. These revisions included the first introduction of jury service within courts. Charlemagne maintained diplomatic relations with Byzantium, Baghdad, Mercia, Northumbria, and others. He introduced a new coinage and reformed the weights and measures. In addition, communications were much improved, Church reforms throughout his dominions began, missionary and monastic reforms were supported, the old heroic sagas and other peoples' laws were written down, and religious instruction in the vernacular was promoted.
Date added: 05.11.05
Region: Western Europe, France
Category: Politics, Military, Religion, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Foundation of Fulda Monastery
Date: 744 A.D.
Description:
St. Sturm, a disciple of St. Boniface, founded the Benedictine monastery at Fulda (now Hesse) in Germany as a part of Boniface's mission to bring Christianity to the pagan tribes of Germany.
Date added: 09.01.05
Region: Western Europe, Germany
Category: Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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The Abbasid Revolution in Khurasan
Date: 747 A.D.
Description:
For more than a century the Abbasid family, who were descended from Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, had been content with their territories in Khurasan (Eastern Iran) whilst the Umayyad dynasty of Caliphs (661-750) controlled Arabia and the fertile crescent.

However, from the start of the eighth century, the Abbasids would become increasingly involved in a number of disputes with the Umayyads which would ultimately lead to an alliance with the Shiite faction and open revolt. Led by the talented Abu Muslim, the Abbasids having, by 749 AD, united most of the empire in revolt, would commence a series of successful campaigns resulting in the conquest of Iraq and Syria.

Marwan II, the last of the Umayyad caliphs, was finally defeated and killed, leaving the Arabian empire under the control of the Abbasid dynasty. Only in Moslem Spain would the Umayyads continue to hold power. The second Abbasid Caliph, al-Mansur, would commence the building a new city, Baghdad, close to the site of the ancient city of Babylon in 763 (the works were completed by his successor, Harun al Rashid), and it was to here that the empire's capital would be moved from Damascus, thus preserving Persian influence in the Middle East well into the 9th and 10th centuries.
Date added: 09.11.05
Region: Middle East, Iran, Iraq, Syria
Category: Politics, Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter
Source information: Nicolle, David. The Armies of Islam 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing, 1982. (Links: http://www.jewish-history.com/Palestine/period2.html; http://www.bartleby.com/65/ab/Abbasid.html)

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Muslim Introduction of Papermaking
Date: 751 A.D.
Description:
Following an appeal from the ruler of Tashkent for military assistance at the Battle of the Talas River near Samarkand, the Arabs soundly defeated the Chinese. This caused the collapse of the Chinese empire in Central Asia. From captured craftsmen the Arabs would learn the secret of papermaking, a craft that would rapidly spread throughout the Middle East.
Date added: 05.11.05
Region: Middle East, Northern Africa
Category: Literature, Education
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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The Book of Kells is Composed
Date: c. 760 A.D.
Description:
Created by Columban monks on the remote monastery island of Iona, which lies off the coast of Scotland, the magnificently illustrated and ornamented Book of Kells contains transcriptions of the four Gospels, and it is considered to be the most elaborate manuscript of its kind to have survived from the Middle Ages. Today it is on permanent display at the library of Trinity College, Dublin.
Date added: 09.01.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Scotland
Category: Literature
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Battle of Benson
Date: 779 A.D.
Description:
Offa, King of Mercia, defeats the West Saxons at Benson, to become the Bretwalda (overlord) of all England.

Subject kings would owe the Bretwalda tribute, suit at court, and military service. They would also have to seek his permission prior to granting any plots of land.
Date added: 12.18.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Offa's Dyke Completed
Date: c. 783 A.D.
Description:
Offa's dyke is an earthwork constructed during the reign of King Offa of Mercia and Bretwalda of England to separate his kingdom from the Welsh tribes.

The seventy mile long dyke replaced an earlier boundary built during the reign of Offa's predecessor, Aethelbard.
Date added: 12.18.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England, Wales
Category: Military, Art and Architecture
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Sack of Iona
Date: 785 A.D.
Description:
Danish raiders sack the monastery on the island of Iona off the west coast of Scotland. Although it was one of the first of the Viking raids, the monastery buildings were quickly rebuilt by the monks.
Date added: 12.18.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Scotland, Scandinavia
Category: Military, Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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New Bishopric at Lichfield
Date: 787 A.D.
Description:
King Offa wanted another archbishopric for Mercia, and this led to the foundation of an archbishopric at Lichfield. Shortly after Offa's death, however, it disappeared, leaving only the archbishoprics at York and Canterbury.
Date added: 12.23.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 69.

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Independent Idrisid Dynasty Established in Morocco
Date: 788 A.D.
Description:
Following the collapse of the Roman Empire, Morocco had been conquered by the Vandals in 429 AD and subsequently by the Byzantines in 533 AD. During the seventh century the Arabs would commence a series of campaigns that would bring all of the North African coastline under Moslem rule by 682 AD. Under the Arabs, North Africa would be divided into three provinces: Egypt (with its capital based at Cairo), Ifriquiva (Capital At Qairwan near Tunis) and Maghreb (capital at Fez).

In 788 , the Arab Caliphate of Maghreb rebelled against the Arabian Caliphs and established an independent state ruled over by the Idrisid Dynasty. This independent state would last for 150 years, during which time the Pagan or Christian inhabitants of Morocco (Berbers) would largely convert to the Islamic faith. The Idrisid caliphate would finally end in 974 AD when the dynasty was overthrown by the Egyptian Fatamid Caliphs.
Date added: 09.11.05
Region: Northern Africa, Morocco
Category: Politics, Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter
Source information: Nicolle, David. The Armies of Islam 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing, 1982. (Links: http://www.family-of-man.com/CatalogEnglish/...; http://www.arab.net/morocco/mo_invaders.htm)

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Offa Annexes East Anglia
Date: 792 A.D.
Description:
Offa, King of Mercia, annexes the minor Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of East Anglia, leaving only the kingdoms of Wessex (in the southern counties) and Northumbria (in the far Northern) as independent Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in England.
Date added: 05.07.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Danes Raid Lindisfarne
Date: 793 A.D.
Description:
Danish raiders attack the monastery of Lindisfarne (Holy Island) forcing the monks to flee.
Date added: 12.18.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Scotland, Scandinavia
Category: Military, Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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First Danish Raids in England
Date: 796 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Society
Source information: Roberts, Clayton and Roberts, David. A History of England, Third Edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998. 42.

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Charlemagne's Coronation as Emperor
Date: December 25th, 800 A.D.
Description:
Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne emperor of the West at Christmas mass. The title had not been used since Roman Augustulus held the title in 476.
Date added: 12.18.04
Region: Western Europe, France, Holy Roman Empire, Italy
Category: Politics, Religion, Law and Legislation
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Capture of Barcelona
Date: 801 A.D.
Description:
After a two-year siege the Franks capture Barcelona from the Moors.
Date added: 01.06.05
Region: Western Europe, Southern Europe, Iberian Peninsula, Spain
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Election of King Egbert
Date: 802 A.D.
Description:
Egbert, a son of one of the King of Kent's vassal's, is elected as the new King of Wessex.

In 789 Egbert had been forced into exile by King Offa and had spent his time in exile at the court of the Emperor Charlemagne.
Date added: 01.01.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Battle of Ellendun
Date: 825 A.D.
Description:
In this defeat of Beornwulf of Mercia, Egbert, King of Essex, gained power over lesser kingdoms in the south of England.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics
Source information: Roberts, Clayton and Roberts, David. A History of England, Third Edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998. 42.

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Egbert Becomes Overlord of England
Date: 829 A.D.
Description:
Having defeated Beornwulf of Mercia at the Battle of Ellendun in 825 and temporarily annexing Mercia in 828, the Kingdom of Northumbria recognized Egbert's lordship over England. So by 829 Egbert's claim to be the new Bretwalda had finally been established.
Date added: 01.01.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Egbert Defeats the Danes
Date: 835 A.D.
Description:
In 830 Wiglaf had re-established Mercian independence, thus leaving Egbert only in effective control of Wessex and his subject territories of Surrey, Sussex, Kent and Essex.

The apparent weakness of his kingdom at this time led to an unsuccessful revolt by Cornish rebels assisted by a large force of Danes. After a short campaign the Danes and Cornishmen were successfully routed.
Date added: 01.01.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Ęthelwulf's Reign Begins
Date: 839 A.D.
Description:
Ęthelwulf, King of Wessex, succeeded to the throne on the death of King Egbert in 839. The first of the Danish invasions were to begin during his reign.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Foundation of Dublin
Date: c. 840 A.D.
Description:
The Danes found the towns of Dublin and Limerick in Ireland.
Date added: 01.04.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Ireland
Category: Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Treaty of Verdun
Date: 843 A.D.
Description:
This treaty divided the Carolingian Empire into three new states. These states were divided amongst the three surviving grandsons of Charlemagne. Lothar, the eldest, kept the imperial title but in reality really only had authority over his third of the empire. That third included Rome and Aachen and stretched from the North Sea to the Italian peninsula in a long portion down Western Europe. After Lothar's death in 855, this kingdom dissolved. Louis the German received East Francia, which encompasses much of modern Germany. The third brother, Charles the Bald, took West Francia from which France would develop.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Western Europe, France, Germany, Italy
Category: Politics, Law and Legislation
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Kenneth I, First King of Scotland
Date: 850 A.D.
Description:
Kenneth MacAlpin (King Kenneth I) conquers the Picts to the north of the Forth to become the first King of Scotia.

Originally Scotia meant Ireland but would later come to mean all of Scotland.
Date added: 01.04.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Scotland
Category: Politics, Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Ęthelwulf's Reign Ends
Date: 856 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Ęthelbald's Reign Begins
Date: 856 A.D.
Description:
Ęthelbald, the third son of King Egbert succeeded his father in 856. His short-lived reign lasted just four years before he was succeeded by his brother Ęthelbert (the fourth son of Egbert).
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Reign of Donald I
Date: 858 A.D.
Description:
Donald was the brother of Kenneth I MacAlpin. He succeeded his brother in 858 and his short reign was notable for the introduction of Dalriadic (Irish) law into the lands of the Picts. He died of natural causes near Scone, Perthshire in 862.

Donald was described at the time as "the wanton son of the foreign woman". Whether this means that Donald was Kenneth's half brother, or more likely that he was from both Pictish and Irish ancestry (Kenneth's own Grandmother was a Pict) is unclear.
Date added: 01.06.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Scotland
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Ęthalbald's Reign Ends
Date: 860 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Ęthelbert's Reign Begins
Date: 860 A.D.
Description:
Ęthelbert, the third son of King Ęthelwulf succeeded to the throne upon the death of his elder brother Ęthelbald in 860. Like his brother, Ęthelbert had a relatively short reign as king (just six years) before he too died. The crown in 866 then passed to his brother Ęthelred, the fourth son of Ęthelwulf.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Reign of Constantine I
Date: 862 A.D.
Description:
The son of King Kenneth I MacAlpin, Constantine succeeded Donald I, his uncle, as King of Scotia in 862. During his reign his main concern was combating increasing Viking raids and incursions into his territory. He was killed in a battle in 878 whilst fighting another Viking invasion.
Date added: 01.06.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Scotland
Category: Politics, Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Conversion of Prince Boris
Date: 865 A.D.
Description:
Prince Boris of the Bulgar Khanate converts to the Christian faith. After a short delay he accepted the jurisdiction of Constantinople rather than that of Rome.
Date added: 01.09.05
Region: Eastern Europe, Byzantine Empire
Category: Religion, Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Ęthelbert's Reign Ends
Date: 866 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Ęthelred's Reign Begins
Date: 866 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Reign of Ęthelred, King of Wessex
Date: 866 A.D.
Description:
Ęthelred, the fourth son of King Ęthelwulf, succeeded his brother Ęthelbert to the throne of Wessex in 866. In 865 the 'Great Heathen Host', the largest Danish army up until this point, arrived in England under the command of Halfdan, Guthrum, and Ivar bent on conquering lands for settlement. Ęthelred and his younger brother Alfred (Alfred the Great) would lead Anglo-Saxon resistance against the Danish invasion into East Anglia throughout his reign.

By 868 the Saxons had forced the Danes to abandon Nottingham, and within two years the Norsemen had been utterly ousted them from Mercia. The Danes meanwhile had established a base in Reading. Ęthelred drove them out of their stronghold, and on the (circa) 8th January 871 Alfred would achieve a crushing victory with his West Saxons over the Norsemen at the Battle of Ashdown, which was fought on the Berkshire Downs near Reading. Contemporary chroniclers tended to over exaggerate the importance of this victory. The victory was marred shortly afterwards with the king's defeat at Merton in April 871. Although Ęthelred would die from wounds received at the Battle of Merton, he had effectively paved the way for Wessex to unite England in opposition to the heathen Danes.
Date added: 01.12.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Foundation of the Saffarid Dynasty
Date: 867 A.D.
Description:
Ya'cub ibn-al-Laith al-Saffar ('the coppersmith'), a craftsman-turned-bandit leader, seizes control of Seistan (in eastern Persia) and declares independence from the Abbasid caliphate. Under his Saffarid dynasty the Persian language enjoys a revival after two centuries of strong Arabic influence.
Date added: 01.09.05
Region: Middle East, Persian Empire
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Reign of Basil I
Date: September 24th, 867 A.D.
Description:
In 867 Michael III, the Byzantine emperor, appointed Boris the Macedonian (812-886) to be co-ruler of the Empire. A ruthless protégé, Boris repaid his benefactor by having Michael assassinated on the 24th September 867 and then succeeded him as Emperor. Basil I thus founded the Macedonian dynasty (867-1059) that was to bring the Byzantine Empire to the peak of its power.

On the 3 November 867, Basil I would depose Photius (c. 820-891), the Patriarch of Constantinople. Photius had risen to high office at the Byzantine court and in 858 had been elected as the patriarch in place of Ignatius (who was deposed for political reasons). The Pope Nicholas I, however, supported Ignatius and refused to recognize Photius, who in return excommunicated the Pope. To make matters worse, there was a dispute over Latin missionaries in Bulgaria, a council at Constantinople to which the papal legates were not admitted, and denouncement of the filioque addition to the creed. With Photius' dismissal Ignatius could be restored, and this ended the schism that had existed between the Greek and Roman churches.

With Ignatius as Patriarch, Basil was able to conclude an alliance with the pope in Rome to oppose the danger from Islamic encroachments into the western empire. Although Arab forces managed to seize Sicily, they were successfully checked in Dalmatia. Upon Ignatius' death (877), Photius would once again be appointed Patriarch, but this time with the recognition of Pope John VIII. He would be exiled again in 886, however, by Pope Leo VI.

Basil's reign was one of an almost continuous offensive against the forces of Islam in both the western and the eastern provinces of the empire. In addition, he also began the revision and codification of the body of laws that had first been compiled by Justinian I.
Date added: 01.12.05
Region: Eastern Europe, Byzantine Empire
Category: Politics, Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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First Printed Book
Date: May 11th, 868 A.D.
Description:
A printed paper roll, dated 11 May 868 and containing part of a Chinese translation of the Buddhist text Dharani Sutra, is the earliest surviving evidence of a printed book.
Date added: 01.09.05
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Literature, Technology
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Colonizing of Iceland
Date: 870 A.D.
Description:
The foster brothers Ingolf and Hjorleif become the first Viking colonists of Iceland. Hjorleif was murdered by his Irish slaves, but Ingolf founded a successful settlement at Reykjavik.
Date added: 01.09.05
Region: Scandinavia, Iceland
Category: Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Alfred the Great of England Crowned King of Wessex
Date: 871 A.D.
Description:
Alfred was the youngest of the five sons of King Ęthelwulf. He was born at Wantage (in Oxfordshire) in 849 AD. After his brother, King Ęthelred, died of wounds at the Battle of Merton in April 871, Alfred succeeded to the throne of Wessex. Alfred's rule was characterized not only by great military successes, but also by his many accomplishments in times of peace.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Ęthelred's Reign Ends
Date: 871 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Alfred Purchases a Truce
Date: 872 A.D.
Description:
Alfred the Great purchases a truce from the Danes.
Date added: 12.23.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 74.

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Spread of the Cult of the Buddha Amida
Date: 873 A.D.
Description:
The cult of the Buddha Amida, or 'the Buddha of Immeasurable Light', begins to spread in Japan. Followers believe that when they die, Amida will take them to paradise in the western heavens. This cult would eventually become extremely popular and spread to China.
Date added: 01.20.05
Region: Eastern Asia, Japan
Category: Religion, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Chinese Peasants' Revolt
Date: 874 A.D.
Description:
In 875, following a terrible drought, a peasant rising led by Huang Chao and Wang Xianzhi broke out against the ruling Tang dynasty regime of China. Discontent against the Tang's regime had been growing for some time. This discontent was fuelled by corrupt officials who illegally annexed land and collected taxes, either in cash or grain, even during periods of natural disaster. The Chinese economy fell into decline as a result of an increasing population competing for ever reducing plots of land, which led ultimately to a reduction in the tax revenue that was essential for the maintenance of the regime's military authority. Unrest increased as large numbers of desperate peasants fled from the fields as a consequence of the resulting poverty and famine, and the Emperor's troops, now no longer capable of even defending China's frontiers, became increasing unable to control the period of lawlessness that ensued.

The revolt itself commenced in Henan and Shandong in eastern China. It soon spread throughout a dozen provinces, and up to 1,000,000 rebels were involved. With such a large force at their disposal, the rebel leaders were soon able to seize control of almost a half of China. When Wang Xianzhi died in battle, Huang Chao would become the sole leader of the rebels army which now marched on and captured the Imperial city of Chang'an. Here they established their own regime (the Da Qi) whilst the Tang Emperor Xizong (873-888) fled to Chengdu.

Despite their large numbers, the rebels would never be able to best the trained armies of the Tang Emperor. Xizong gathered together the remaining elements of his loyal troops and combined them with allied contingents (largely Shatuo Turks) from the regional Fanzhen fortress-border-states. With this force, the Emperor was able to force Huang Chao to abandon Chang'an in 884 AD and, pursued by the Turkish allies, forced him back into Henan where the rebellion had commenced ten years earlier. Here, abandoned by most of his followers, Huang Chao committed suicide.

Despite having defeating the rebellion, the authority of the Tang dynasty had been permanently damaged. The landlord class had been effectively broken as a political power, which now devolved onto provincial warlords and thus would ultimately spell the end to the Tang Dynasty.
Date added: 01.20.05
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Military, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter
Source information: Author's source note:
This timeline item originated out of a couple of related paragraphs in the Hutchinson History Reference Suite (CD ROM) which I thought were worthy of further research. However, not having many books on the subject of medieval China, I was rather reluctantly forced to fall back on the one thing that I rather try to avoid (e.g. surfing the Net). I was rather surprised by the amount of information available, but to keep the entry to a reasonable length I have summarised the event as much as possible and I apologise for any omissions or misinterpretations that may have occurred. For anyone interested in following up this subject with more research, I would thoroughly recommend this online resource.

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Charles the Bald Becomes King of Italy
Date: January 31st, 876 A.D.
Description:
Having established the military power of his kingdom, Charles in 875 felt strong enough to make a bid for the vacant position of Holy Roman Emperor. Marching into Italy he was crowned as such by the pope, and on the 31st January 876 he gained unopposed, for himself, the crown of the Kingdom of Italy following the death of Louis II without legitimate issue.
Date added: 01.24.05
Region: Western Europe, Holy Roman Empire, Italy
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Abbasids Lose Syria
Date: 877 A.D.
Description:
Ahmad-ibn-Tulun, Emir of Egypt, seizes Syria from the declining Abbasid caliphate.
Date added: 01.20.05
Region: Middle East
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Guthrum Retreats and is Baptised
Date: 878 A.D.
Description:
Following his defeat at Edington, Guthrum agrees to leave Wessex with his forces and to accept Christianity.
Date added: 12.23.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Religion
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 76.

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Battle of Edington
Date: May 878 A.D.
Description:
King Alfred the Great of England defeats Guthrum and the Danish army, saving Wessex from destruction by the Danes.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics, Society

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West Saxon Chronicle of England
Date: c. 892 A.D.
Description:
Around this year, a West Saxon chronicler wrote a history of England. It covered English history from the birth of Christ until the year 891 and was based upon earlier sources that have been lost.
Date added: 03.19.06
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Society, Religion
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 781.

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Anglo Saxon Chronicle
Date: c. 892 A.D.
Description:
The Anglo Saxon Chronicle is an account of English history that continues from the 892 chronicle. It has many different authors from different monasteries and is actually a series of related chronicles. Some of the surviving manuscripts cover a period of time up until the eleventh century, while one lasts all the way until Henry II's accession to the throne in 1154.
Date added: 03.19.06
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Society, Religion
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 82.

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Alfred the Great of England Dies
Date: 899 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edward the Elder's Reign Begins
Date: 899 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Founding of the Later Liang Dynasty
Date: 907 A.D.
Description:
The empire of the Tang dynasty was finally overthrown when the Chinese warlord Zhuwen deposed Aidi, the last of the Tang dynasty emperors. China then fragmented into 11 warring states (known as the age of the Five Dynasties and the Ten Kingdoms (907-960). Of these Zhuwen's 'Later Liang dynasty' would establish control over the Chang Jiang Basin in northern China, which was the richest region of China. In 912 Zhuwen, was murdered by his son Yingwang, who succeeded him.

The Late Liang would itself be overthrown in 923 by the Shatuo Turks from China's border provinces who would establish the Later Tang dynasty.
Date added: 01.31.05
Region: Eastern Asia, China
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Foundation of Fatamid Dynasty
Date: December 7th, 909 A.D.
Description:
Having overthrown the Sunni Aghlabid dynasty of Kairouan in Tunisia, Sa'id ibn-Husayn was proclaimed as Ubaydullah al-Mahdi ('the divinely guided one') in Tunis. Here he would establish the Ismailite (Shiite) caliphate in opposition to the Sunni caliphate of Baghdad.

The Fatimid dynasty established by Al-Mahdi was named after Fatima, the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Date added: 02.01.05
Region: Northern Africa
Category: Politics, Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Battle of Tettenhall
Date: 910 A.D.
Description:
Edward the Elder was able to win victory over the Danes in Northumbria with this battle.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics

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Foundation of the Cluny Monastery
Date: 910 A.D.
Description:
William the Pious, Duke of Aquitaine, founded Cluny in 910 in east-central France. Cluny was a Benedictine monastery devoted to the strictest observance of Saint Benedict's rule. A special emphasis was placed on liturgical purity. Out of this great monastery a reform movement was born which had a substantial impact on Western Christianity. The Cluniacs asserted that no secular ruler could hold authority over the Church; the Pope in Rome was the only ruler over the clergy. Chastity among the clergy was another issue the Cluny reformers sought to tackle. These two important components of Western Christianity, the separation of Church and State and the celibacy of the Catholic clergy, had definitive roots in the Cluny reform movement born out of this monastery.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Western Europe, France
Category: Religion
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout
Source information: Craig, Albert M., William A. Graham, Donald Kagen, Steven Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Heritage of World Civilizations Volume One: To 1650. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2000. 341.

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Edward the Elder of England Dies
Date: 924 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Athelstan's Reign Begins
Date: 924 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Athelstan Takes York from the Danes
Date: 927 A.D.
Description:
This victory established power in the north of England. After Athelstan's death, gains in the north would soon be lost.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics

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Battle of Brunanburh
Date: 937 A.D.
Description:
With this battle, King Athelstan and his brother Edmund, leading a combined army from Wessex and Mercia, were able to defeat an invading force of Norse Vikings from Ireland.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 84.

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Athelstan of England Dies
Date: 939 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Reign of Edmund I of England Begins
Date: 939 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edmund I of England Dies
Date: 946 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edred of England's Reign Begins
Date: 946 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edred of England's Reign Ends
Date: 955 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edwy of England's Reign Begins
Date: 955 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Magyars Defeated at the Battle of the Lechfeld
Date: 955 A.D.
Description:
King Otto the Great's crushing defeat of the Magyars at the battle of Lechfeld brought an end to their raids into the west. Within the next fifty years the Magyars had established their own kingdom and adopted Christianity.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Eastern Europe
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout
Source information: Hollister, C. Warren and Judith M. Bennett. Medieval History: A Short History. 9th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2002. 130.

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Edwy of England Dies
Date: 959 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edgar of England's Reign Begins
Date: 959 A.D.
Description:
Edgar was the brother of Edwy and succeeded his brother after Edwy's death. Edgar is sometimes known as "the Peaceable."
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 86.

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Edgar Recognized as Supreme
Date: 973 A.D.
Description:
In this year Edgar was acknowledged as supreme ruler on the island of Britain. At Chester, he received the submission of various Welsh and Scottish kings.
Date added: 03.19.06
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Society
Source information: Hollister, Warren C., Stacey, Robert C., and Stacey, Robin Chapman. The Making of England to 1399. Eighth edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. 86.

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Edgar of England Dies
Date: July 8th, 975 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edward the Martyr of England's Reign Begins
Date: July 8th, 975 A.D.
Description:
Edward the Martyr is known as such because of his murder by his younger brother's supporters.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edward the Martyr of England Dies
Date: 979 A.D.
Description:
Edward the Martyr is known as such because of his murder by his younger brother's supporters.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Ethelred II of England's First Reign Begins
Date: 979 A.D.
Description:
Ethelred II is also called Ethelred the Unready.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Ethelred II of England's First Reign Ends
Date: 1013 A.D.
Description:
When Sweyn, king of Denmark, deposed him, Ethelred fled to Normandy. He would later return to rule again, however.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Sweyn of Denmark Begins Reign of England
Date: 1013 A.D.
Description:
The nobility of England were so dissatisfied with the rule of Ethelred II that they recognized Sweyn as king of England. Sweyn was also known as Sweyn Forkbeard.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Ethelred II of England's Second Reign Begins
Date: 1014 A.D.
Description:
After Sweyn's (the king of Denmark) death, Ethelred returned to England to rule.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Sweyn of Denmark, King of England Dies
Date: 1014 A.D.
Description:
Sweyn's reign in England was cut short by his death.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Ethelred II of England Dies
Date: 1016 A.D.
Description:
Ethelred's second reign was cut short by his death.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Canute the Great of England's Reign Begins
Date: 1016 A.D.
Description:
Canute was also king of Denmark and Norway. All of his rivals for the throne fled, leaving him the undisputed king of England in this year.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edmund II of England's Reign Begins
Date: April 1016 A.D.
Description:
Edmund II is also known as Edmund Ironside. Following a defeat by Canute, Edmund was allowed to rule in Wessex until his death.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edward II of England Dies
Date: November 1016 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Abbadid Dynasty Begins
Date: c. 1023 A.D.
Description:
An Islamic dynasty that arose in Spain after the fall of the western caliphate.
Date added: 07.08.05
Region: Western Europe, Southern Europe, Iberian Peninsula, Spain
Category: Politics, Society, Religion
Source information: The Encyclopædia Britannica. A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, Eleventh Edition. Volume I. New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company, 1910. 8-9.

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Canute the Great of England Dies
Date: 1035 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Harold Harefoot of England's Reign Begins
Date: 1035 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Harold Harefoot of England Dies
Date: 1035 A.D.
Description:
Harold's death left the throne of England to his brother Hardicanute.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Hardicanute of England's Reign Begins
Date: 1035 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Hardicanute of England's Reign Ends
Date: 1042 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edward III (the Confessor) of England's Reign Begins
Date: 1042 A.D.
Description:
Following the extinction of Canute's line, Edward III (Hardicanute's half-brother) became king.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Abbad I Dies
Date: 1042 A.D.
Description:
Abd-ul-Qasim (Abbad I), founder of the Abbadid dynasty in Spain dies. He is succeeded by Abbad II.
Date added: 07.08.05
Region: Western Europe, Southern Europe, Iberian Peninsula, Spain
Category: Politics
Source information: The Encyclopædia Britannica. A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, Eleventh Edition. Volume I. New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company, 1910. 8-9.

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Schism of East and West
Date: 1054 A.D.
Description:
After an unfortunate sequence of events, two cardinals and a bishop from Rome, on business in Byzantium, left a Bull of Excommunication upon the high altar in St. Sophia. This was directed at the Greek Patriarch Cerularius, who in turn excommunicated them. This incident led to the schism of Catholic and Orthodox Churches, which was later even further cemented by the events of the Fourth Crusade.
Date added: 07.27.05
Region: Byzantine Empire, Southeastern Europe
Category: Religion
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Edward III (the Confessor) of England Dies
Date: 1066 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Harold II of England's Reign Begins
Date: January 1066 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Battle of Stamford Bridge
Date: September 25th, 1066 A.D.
Description:
This battle was a victory for Harold II and England over Norway/the Danes, but it also weakened England's defenses for when the Normans invaded.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Northern Europe, British Isles, England, Scandinavia
Category: Militaristic, Politics

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Edgar Atheling of England's Reign Begins
Date: October 1066 A.D.
Description:
Following the Norman Conquest, Edgar Atheling succeeded in staging a rebellion, but it was short lived and was soon put down by William.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Harold II of England Dies
Date: October 14th, 1066 A.D.
Description:
William, duke of Normandy (later William I - the Conqueror) defeated Harold II at the Battle of Hastings.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Battle of Hastings
Date: October 14th, 1066 A.D.
Description:
At the Battle of Hastings, William, duke of Normandy, defeated and killed Harold II, successfully completing the Norman Conquest.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics, Society

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Edgar Atheling of England's Reign Ends
Date: December 1066 A.D.
Description:
This marks the end of the short-lived rebellion against William I.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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William I (the Conqueror) Crowned King of England
Date: December 25th, 1066 A.D.
Description:
After successfully defeating Harold in battle and completing the Norman Invasion, William was crowned King of England in Westminster Abbey.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Abbad II Dies
Date: February 28th, 1069 A.D.
Description:
Following Abbad I's death, his son Mahommed Abd-ul-Qasim Abenebet (Abbad III) took over as leader of the Abbadides in Spain. He was the last of the Abbadids.
Date added: 07.08.05
Region: Western Europe, Southern Europe, Iberian Peninsula, Spain
Category: Politics
Source information: The Encyclopædia Britannica. A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, Eleventh Edition. Volume I. New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company, 1910. 8-9.

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Battle of Manzikert
Date: August 1071 A.D.
Description:
In one of the worst defeats in the Byzantine Empire's history, Emperor Romanus Diogenes was defeated and captured by the Turks' sultan, Alp Arslan. As a result of this battle, the Eastern Empire lost much of Asia Minor, which included much of its grain and manpower sources.
Date added: 07.27.05
Region: Byzantine Empire, Southeastern Europe
Category: Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Battle of Manzikert
Date: August 1071 A.D.
Description:
In one of the worse defeats in Byzantine's history, Emperor Romanus Diogenes was defeated and captured by the Turks' sultan, Alp Arslan. By May of 1071, Emperor Romanus had amassed 60,000 men on the Armenian border in the hopes of strengthening the eastern borders of Anatolia from the Seljuks by taking the war to them. Romanus' army consisted of native Byzantines as well as mercenaries. He divided his army into two columns and set out to capture the Armenian frontier fortress of Manzikert. The column led by Romanus then set out to meet the Seljuks. His second column, however, led by General Tarchaniotes, did not join him. Romanus was therefore left with about 30,000 men to face the enemy forces led by Alp Arslan. The ensuing battle began in the Byzantines' favor but that soon changed when a trap set by the Seljuks sprang into action. By feigning retreat, the Seljuks were able to draw Romanus' army forward. Romanus did fear a trap but his order to turn back was given too late. Seljuk cavalry raced forward, breaking the ranks of the Byzantines, some of whom managed to escape. Many, including the emperor, ended up surrounded. Romanus' mercenaries attempted to flee but were killed. The Byzantine emperor, Romanus, was captured and later released on conditions of a peace treaty, but he was replaced in a coup at home and killed by his own soldiers. The Seljuks considered the treaty broken and proceeded to invade and occupy Anatolia. As a result of this battle, the Eastern Empire lost much of Asia Minor, which included much of its grain and manpower sources. Its only effective army was also decimated and the ruler who emerged from the coup was forced to appeal to Rome for help against the Seljuks.
Date added: 09.01.05
Region: Byzantine Empire
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout
Source information: Konstam, Angus. Historical Atlas of the Crusades. New York: Checkmark Books, 2002. 40-42.

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Birth of Anna Comnena
Date: 1083 A.D.
Description:
She is considered the first female historian in the west and was the daughter of Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus. Her 15 volume history of her family the Comneni, is entitled the Alexiad, and gives a wealth of information about her father and the first crusaders.
Date added: 07.25.05
Region: Byzantine Empire, Southeastern Europe
Category: Literature, Society
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Alfonso VI of Castile Takes Toledo
Date: 1085 A.D.
Description:
Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo from the Abbadides.
Date added: 07.08.05
Region: Western Europe, Southern Europe, Iberian Peninsula, Spain
Category: Military, Politics, Religion
Source information: The Encyclopædia Britannica. A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, Eleventh Edition. Volume I. New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company, 1910. 8-9.

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Oath of Salisbury
Date: August 1st, 1086 A.D.
Description:
Twenty years after the conquest King William I, he called upon all the great land-owning lords to pay homage at Old Sarum (a site of an ancient hill fort near Salisbuty, Wiltshire). The lords were commanded to swear an oath of fealty in person and to confirm their obligation to provide military service to the king in return for the lands that they currently held, regardless of who their own overlord might be.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Military, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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William I (the Conqueror) of England Dies
Date: September 9th, 1087 A.D.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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William II Crowned King of England
Date: September 26th, 1087 A.D.
Description:
Based on the instructions of his father's will, William II was crowned king at Westminster Abbey.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Abbad III is Deposed
Date: 1091 A.D.
Description:
Abbad III is deposed by the Almoravides, ending the Abbadid dynasty.
Date added: 07.08.05
Region: Western Europe, Southern Europe, Iberian Peninsula, Spain
Category: Politics
Source information: The Encyclopædia Britannica. A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, Eleventh Edition. Volume I. New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company, 1910. 8-9.

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Pope Urban II's Speech at Clermont
Date: November 27th, 1095 A.D.
Description:
This speech, given by Pope Urban II in central France in 1095, was responsible for releasing a torrent of events which played out on a grand scale over the few hundred years. Since a major announcement was expected, the speech was moved to a field so that it could accommodate more people. Thousands of laymen and clerics gathered to hear him speak. Marked as the starting point of the crusades, Urban II's speech called upon both rich and poor to help their Christian brothers in the East. Originally the goal was just that, to help the Christian Churches in the East, but a very different goal soon developed. The freeing of the Holy Sepulchre of Christ from the non-Christians soon became the most important objective. The success of Urban II's appeal at Clermont was extraordinary and to help spread the word even further, preachers were sent all around Europe.

"Deus lo volt!"
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Western Europe, France
Category: Religion, Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Jews Massacred by Crusaders
Date: 1096 A.D.
Description:
Jewish communities in towns and cities along the Rhine River were slaughtered by crusaders. Dozens of small settlements and larger towns like Mainz, Speyer, Worms, Trier, Xanten, Metz and Cologne all experienced the crusaders' reign of murder. Some churchmen tried, often in vain, to protect Jewish families from the crusaders. In Speyer, a local bishop was able to save hundreds by hiding them in his church, but a similar strategy by a bishop in Worms failed when crusaders stormed his residence and killed all of the Jewish families he had hiding there. Massacres of Jews at the hands of the crusaders also occurred in Prague, Regensburg and Salzburg.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Western Europe, Germany
Category: Society, Religion, Military
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout
Source information: Konstam, Angus. Historical Atlas of the Crusades. New York: Checkmark Books, 2002. 52-53.

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Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders
Date: July 15th, 1099 A.D.
Description:
The crusading army surrounded Jerusalem in June of 1099. They had few supplies and had knowledge of an approaching Egyptian army, so time was a major factor. They either had to take the city quickly or retreat to the coast. On June 13 the crusaders tried to take the city by storm but failed, mainly due to a lack of siege engines and ladders. In a vision, a priest was told that the city would fall to them if they held a fast and then a procession around the city walls. The crusaders held a fast and on July 8, a procession of barefoot crusaders led by bishops and priests walked around the walls of the city. This odd sight (at least for the city's defenders) ended at Mount Olive, where preachers gave speeches. Spiritually rejuvenated, the crusaders finished building some siege equipment that was in progress and began the assault on the night of July 13-14. July 15th was the day that the city of Jerusalem fell to the crusaders. The Fatamid governor and his attendants were the only Muslims to escape with their lives. Bloody mass murder followed the taking of the city. Every Muslim, regardless of gender or age was slaughtered. Any other non-Christians, such as the city's Jews, were also killed. The Sepulchre of Christ was now again in Christian hands, and the city was awash with blood.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Middle East
Category: Military, Religion, Politics, Society
Source information: Konstam, Angus. Historical Atlas of the Crusades. New York: Checkmark Books, 2002. 74-75; Mayer, Hans Eberhard. The Crusades. John Gillingham, trans. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. 55-56.

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Marriage of Henry I to Matilda
Date: 1100 A.D.
Description:
King Henry I of England, the grandson of Duke William of Normandy (William I - the Conqueror) marries Matilda, the great grand-daughter of Ęthelred the Unready (reigned 878-1018), thus uniting the Norman and Saxon royal houses.
Date added: 08.26.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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William II of England Dies
Date: August 2nd, 1100 A.D.
Description:
William II was shot by an arrow while hunting in the forest.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Henry I Crowned King of England
Date: August 5th, 1100 A.D.
Description:
Following William II's death, Henry acted quickly to claim the throne. He was crowned at Westminster Abbey.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Marriage of Matilda to the German Emperor Henry V
Date: 1114 A.D.
Description:
Matilda (or Maud), the 12 year old only daughter of King Henry I of England, is married to the German Emperor Henry V.
Date added: 08.26.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England, Germany
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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The Loss of the White Ship
Date: November 25th, 1120 A.D.
Description:
Prince William, King Henry I's only legitimate son and heir, is drowned near Barfleur when the White Ship sinks on its way to Normandy. King Henry appoints his 18 year old daughter Matilda, the wife of the German emperor, to become his heiress, but after Henry's death in 1135, the succession would become a disputed issue between Matilda and her cousin, Stephen (reigned 1135-64), which would throw England into a bitter civil war.
Date added: 08.27.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Henry I of England Dies
Date: December 1st, 1135 A.D.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Stephen I Crowned King of England
Date: December 22nd, 1135 A.D.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Battle of the Standard
Date: August 22nd, 1138 A.D.
Description:
David I, King of the Scots, intervenes in the civil war raging in England in support of his niece, Matilda. A keen supporter of Norman institutions, which had earlier alienated many of his Celtic subjects, King David's Scottish Army occupied Carlisle and advanced into the vale of York. With King Stephen's forces engaged elsewhere, the defence of the North was entrusted to the aged Archbishop Thurstan of York, who inspired his Yorkshire militia with his own Battle-Standard. This standard was a huge forty foot pole mounted on a cart, topped with a silver pyx containing the Host and flying the banners of York's patron saints—St. Peter of York, St. John of Beverley and St. Wilfred of Ripon.

The two opposing armies met at Cowton Moor, near Northallerton, where the Scots were soundly defeated by the Anglo-Normans under the command of William, Count of Aumale.
Date added: 08.27.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England, Scotland
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Battle of Lincoln
Date: February 2nd, 1141 A.D.
Description:
King Stephen, having captured Lincoln from the unpopular Ranulf, Earl of Chester, marched his army out of the city to engage a combined rebel force. This force was commanded by Robert of Gloucester, the Empress Matilda's step brother, and the Earl of Chester with his Cheshire tenants and Welsh mercenaries which had arrived to regain the castle and city for the empress.

The battle went badly for the Royalist. Rebel charges resulted in the king's flanking cavalry fleeing the field, leaving his infantry to fight unsupported. The king, fighting with his bodyguard, was eventually struck down and captured. He was briefly imprisoned in the castle before being escorted to Matilda's headquarters in Bristol. In the aftermath of the battle, the city was pillaged by the victorious rebels, with many of its citizens being slaughtered for their support to the Royalists.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Henry Plantagenet Marries Eleanor of Aquitaine
Date: May 18th, 1152 A.D.
Description:
Prince Henry, the future King Henry II and son of the Empress Matilda by her second husband Geoffrey of Anjou, marries Eleanor of Aquitaine, the widow of King Louis VII and the queen of France. A year later, by the Treaty of Winchester (1153), Henry would become King Stephen's nominated successor, thus adding the throne of England (1154) to his considerable continental inheritances of Normandy, Brittany and Anjou.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England, France
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Stephen I of England Dies
Date: October 25th, 1154 A.D.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Henry II Crowned King of England
Date: December 19th, 1154 A.D.
Description:
In the first undisputed succession since the Norman Conquest, Henry II was crowned the first Angevin king of England.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Dermot MacMurrough Expelled from Ireland
Date: 1166 A.D.
Description:
Rory O'Connor, the High King of Ireland, expels Dermot MacMurrough, King of Leinster, from Ireland. Dermot would return in 1170 with a force of Normans and Welsh mercenaries which would ultimately result in the establishment of Anglo-Norman rule over much of Ireland.

See the Medieval Wiki for more details.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Ireland
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Baldwin IV, the Leper King, Crowned King of Jerusalem
Date: 1174 A.D.
Description:
Baldwin IV was the son of Amalric I and his first wife Agnes of Courtenay. Under suspicions of leprosy, he was nevertheless crowned King of Jerusalem after his father's death. Despite his leprosy being confirmed shortly thereafter, eventually leading to horrible disfigurement and physical handicap, he was never ousted from power.
Date added: 08.27.05
Region: Middle East, Crusader States
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Conquest of Ulster
Date: 1177 A.D.
Description:
A discontented Norman knight, Sir John de Courcy left Dublin with a small force of about 300 men-at-arms to conquer the region of Antrim and Down in Ulster, Northern Ireland. After subduing the local Irish chieftains, de Courcy would commence establishing his own independent kingdom in the region. During the reign of Henry II, he seems to have been left alone to enjoy his independence (particularly as his father-in-law was the Norse King of the Isle of Man), and during this time he established the city of Belfast and established numerous castles and churches. In 1185 he was appointed by Henry to the powerful position of Justiciar of Ireland, but later refused to submit to King John and was ultimately defeated by a Royal force led by Sir Hugh de Lacy. De Lacy was rewarded by King John with the title of Earl of Ulster. De Courcy's later life is shrouded in much myth and legend, and he is thought to have died c. 1219.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Ireland
Category: Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Battle of Mont Gisard
Date: November 25th, 1177 A.D.
Description:
Under the leadership of Baldwin IV and Prince Reynald, the Franks were able to rout Saladin's forces at Mont Gisard. Saladin had been caught off guard, as most of his army was off foraging and pillaging and were not prepared for a battle. The sultan barely escaped with his life and was forced to return to Egypt with only a small fraction of the army he had set out with.
Date added: 08.27.05
Region: Middle East, Crusader States
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Philip II Augustus Orders Jews out of France
Date: April 1182 A.D.
Description:
All nonconverting Jews were ordered out of France in 1182, by order of Philip II Augustus. Their property was confiscated by the king. They were, however, allowed a short amount of time to sell any movable possessions or goods.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Western Europe, France
Category: Society, Religion, Law and Legislation
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout
Source information: Craig, Albert M., William A. Graham, Donald Kagen, Steven Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Heritage of World Civilizations Volume One: To 1650. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2000. 349.

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Rebellion of the Young King
Date: 1183 A.D.
Description:
Henry, the oldest of the quarrelsome sons of King Henry II, together with his brother Geoffrey lead a rebellion in Aquitaine against their brother Richard, the future King Richard I, Couer de Lion. Henry, the young king, would die in 1183, and his brother, Geoffrey of Brittany, died in 1186 whilst plotting another revolt, thus leaving Richard to inherit the crown of England upon their father's death in 1189.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Western Europe, France, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Death of Baldwin IV, the Leper King
Date: 1185 A.D.
Description:
After struggling with the most severe form of leprosy for almost all of his reign, Baldwin IV dies at 23 years of age. He was buried with other kings of Jerusalem in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. During his reign no Frankish territory was lost to Saladin, with a notable victory against Saladin in 1177 at Mont Gisard and another victory at Le Forbelet in 1182.
Date added: 08.27.05
Region: Middle East, Crusader States
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Sibyl and Guy of Lusignan Crowned Queen and King of Jerusalem
Date: 1186 A.D.
Description:
After the death of young Baldwin V, his mother Sibyl was to be crowned queen. This was not to take place until Sibyl agreed to divorce her unpopular husband Guy of Lusignan. Under pressure she agreed, only on the condition that she would be free to marry whomever she wanted afterwards. After her crowning as Queen of Jerusalem she chose her now ex-husband, Guy, to be her new husband. Guy was then crowned King of Jerusalem.
Date added: 08.27.05
Region: Middle East, Crusader States
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Death of Baldwin V
Date: 1186 A.D.
Description:
The nine year old Baldwin V, nephew and successor to Baldwin IV, died of unknown causes at Acre in 1186.
Date added: 08.27.05
Region: Middle East, Crusader States
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Battle of Hattin
Date: July 4th, 1187 A.D.
Description:
On July 4, 1187, the forces of the Kingdom of Jerusalem were defeated by Saladin. Raymond of Tripoli and a few others evaded capture. Many knights were killed in the battle and out of those taken prisoner, even less were allowed to live. The king of Jerusalem (who was Guy of Lusignan), the Master of the Temple and Reynald of Chātillon were among the notables captured. All of the captured Templars were executed except for their master. Saladin himself killed Reynald of Chātillon. Guy of Lusignan was imprisoned and released about a year later. This was the worst defeat ever faced by the Christians in the crusader states and the consequences of this loss were catastrophic. The kingdom had lost almost all of its fighting men in this disaster.
Date added: 08.27.05
Region: Middle East, Crusader States
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Jerusalem surrenders to Saladin
Date: October 2nd, 1187 A.D.
Description:
Saladin's army arrived outside of Jerusalem on September 20, 1187. The Patriarch of Jerusalem, Heracleus, took charge of the city's defenses with the help of Balian of Ibelin. Queen Sibyl of Jerusalem was also present in the city. After two weeks of Saladin's assault upon the walls, with a city full of refugees and a severe shortage of trained fighters, it was clear that nothing could prevent the city from falling. Heracleus and Balian decided that the only option left to them was to seek terms with Saladin. On October 2, 1187, Saladin and his army entered the defeated city amidst a relatively peaceful takeover. Many of the inhabitants, including Queen Sibyl and her entourage, were ransomed.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Middle East, Crusader States
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Henry II of England Dies
Date: July 4th, 1189 A.D.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Richard I (the Lionhearted) Crowned King of England
Date: September 3rd, 1189 A.D.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Capture and Ransom of Richard I
Date: 1192 A.D.
Description:
Returning from the Third Crusade, King Richard I is captured by Duke Leopold of Austria. Richard is then handed over to the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI, who demands the payment of a ransom of 150,000 marks, together with Richard's acknowledgement of Henry as his overlord. By 1194 most of this huge ransom had been paid, and Richard was allowed to return to England. This was only his second visit to his kingdom, but within weeks he had departed again, never to return.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Western Europe, Germany, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Richard I (the Lionhearted) of England Dies
Date: April 6th, 1199 A.D.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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John Crowned King of England
Date: May 27th, 1199 A.D.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Marriage of King John
Date: 1200 A.D.
Description:
King John of England, having divorced his first wife Avice of Gloucester, marries Isabella of Angoulême. Isabel was the heiress to the Angoumois province in Aquitaine and descended on her mother's side from Prince Peter, the fifth son of King Lewis le Gros of France. Unfortunately, Isabella was already betrothed to a Poitevin noble, Hugh of Lusignan. Hugh was enraged and, together with many of his neighbours, took up arms against John. John retaliated by accusing the rebel nobles of treason and challenged them to clear their characters by selecting champions to fight an equal number of English and Norman knights.

The Poitevin barons declined this challenge and instead appealed directly to John's over-lord, King Philip II Augustus of France. In 1202 Philip summoned John to appear before him to answer the complaints of his peers, but not only did John fail to appear, he also did not make any excuse for his absence. Consequently Philip condemned the English King to forfeit his French lands, and with Prince Arthur (John's nephew through his older brother Geoffrey), he commenced an invasion of Normandy.

John's aged mother Eleanor now took up the cause against her grandson, Arthur, but was then besieged by the prince at her castle at Mirebeau. John's army arrived and raised the siege, taking Arthur prisoner. Some time in 1203, Arthur mysteriously disappeared (he was probably murdered by John). However, by now many of the Norman Barons had actively ceased to respect John. Castle after Castle fell to Philip until by 1204 only Chāteau Gaillard remained in English hands. When in 1204 this too fell, John was forced to accept the loss of his lands in Normandy, Maine, Anjou, Touraine and part of Poittou, all of these having submitted to Philip.
Date added: 05.03.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England, France
Category: Politics, Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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The Beginning of the Fourth Crusade
Date: 1202 A.D.
Description:
The Fourth Crusade begins in Venice.
Date added: 05.05.05
Region: Southern Europe, Italy
Category: Religion, Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Constantinople Falls
Date: April 12th, 1204 A.D.
Description:
Instead of reaching Jerusalem, the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade became involved in Venetian and Byzantine intrigues, and they were diverted to Constantinople to help the deposed Byzantine emperor Isaac Angelus to regain his throne. Within a few months the crusaders had stormed and sacked the city, establishing a Latin empire there under Baldwin of Flanders.
Date added: 05.05.05
Region: Southeastern Europe, Byzantine Empire
Category: Politics, Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Genghis Khan and the Formation of the Mongol Empire
Date: 1206 A.D.
Description:
Temujin, a Mongol chieftain, having unified the feuding Mongol tribes under his own leadership through political acumen and military flair, is proclaimed as the 'Genghis Khan' by the Kuriltai (chieftains) at the quriltai (Mongol assembly), so founding the Mongol Empire.

The title Genghis (or Chingis) is literally 'Perfect Warrior'.

His organization of the tribes into semi-feudal clans bound together by unquestioning allegiance to the Khan would create a sophisticated military organization. This would be complemented by the Great Yasa or jasagh, which was an imperial code of laws to which he himself was subject.
Date added: 05.05.05
Region: Eastern Asia, Mongol Empire
Category: Politics, Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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The Children's Crusade
Date: 1212 A.D.
Description:
In 1212 a French boy from Coyes claimed he had met Christ and was urged by him to lead a Children's Crusade. Their innocence and faith would convince the Muslims of their cause, and the children attracted to the crusade believed it. This French boy, known as Stephen, went to Paris to gather support for his crusade to the Holy Land. Thousands of other children joined him and the movement even spread into Germany. Nicholas, a German peasant from near Cologne, served as a rallying point for those in Germany. Eventually Stephen and about 9,000 followers escorted by priests reached the port of Marseilles. In the port local merchants offered to transport them all to the Holy Land. In route a storm at sea drowned all of the children aboard two ships, and the remaining five parted ways, each heading for different destinations. One group went to Bougie in North Africa and the other sailed to Alexandria, Egypt. Both groups of children had the same end result in these port cities; all were sold in the slave markets. While those in Stephen's group met horrible ends, the group led by Nicholas had crossed the Swiss Alps and were in northern Italy. They numbered only about 7,000 or less and wandered south through Italy begging for food as they went. Only a few hundred of Nicholas' group remained when they reached the city of Brindisi on the southern Italian coast. A Norwegian trader by the name of Friso took the children who were left under his wing. Most of these children subsequently ended up in Mediterranean brothels or slave markets. Remarkably, a few actually did make it to the Holy Land by tagging along with groups of pilgrims. The handful of child crusaders that did reach the Holy Land failed to make any sort of an impression on the Muslims who occupied Jerusalem.
Date added: 05.05.05
Region: Western Europe, France, Germany, Italy, Northern Africa
Category: Religion, Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter; Natalie Kohout
Source information: Konstam, Angus. Historical Atlas of the Crusades. New York: Checkmark Books, 2002, 170-171.

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The Fourth Council of the Lateran
Date: 1215 A.D.
Description:
Efficiency is a key word when talking about the Fourth Lateran Council. Summoned in 1213 by Pope Innocent III, it actually took place in 1215. It was the 12th ecumenical council and produced a great deal of significant ecclesiastical legislation. The gathering was so efficiently organized that the attending 1,200+ bishops, abbots and priests produced the new legislation over meetings which took place in the span of only three weeks. The new legislation included such things as requiring Jews to wear special badges, strictly regulating clerical dress and declaring a moratorium on new religious orders. Clerics were now forbidden to participate in the legal procedure of the ordeal and trial by combat and could not charge fees for administering the sacraments. Bishops were ordered to maintain schools and to provide sermons at their services. The legislation also required that all Catholics must go to confession and least once a year. Procedures and punishment for heretics or their protectors were also laid out.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Western Europe
Category: Religion
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout
Source information: Source: Hollister, C. Warren and Judith M. Bennett. Medieval History: A Short History. 9th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

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Magna Carta Signed
Date: June 15th, 1215 A.D.
Description:
King John's barons forced him to sign this document at Runnymede. It placed both John and future English kings within the rule of law, limiting the power of the king.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Society

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John of England Dies
Date: October 19th, 1216 A.D.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Henry III Crowned King of England
Date: October 28th, 1216 A.D.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Issue of the Forest Charter
Date: November 6th, 1217 A.D.
Description:
The Norman kings of England just loved hunting, for it provided them with a bit of rest and relief from the constant demands and political maneuvering of the royal court. The Forest Laws date back to the time of King Canute and were meant to preserve the wildlife from being excessively hunted. Over the years, however the foresters, the officials charged with upholding the laws, had become extremely unpopular amongst the residents of those areas of the rural countryside that were being, more and more, designated as royal parks.

The foresters were often very corrupt, levying fines against offenders (not just poachers but also on common folk collecting firewood), sometimes causing them bodily harm, and generally exceeding their authority under the law.

Although the Forest laws would remain in existence for a century or more, after the boy King Henry III issued the Forest Charter in 1217, this event can be seen as the first event (unlike the Great Charter of 1215 which was more of benefit to the ruling classes) which was designed to improve the lot of the common people.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Society, Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Reign of Ferdinand III
Date: September 3rd, 1230 A.D.
Description:
King Alfonso IX of León (in modern day Spain) dies and is succeeded by his son, King Ferdinand III, of Castile.

Alfonso's wife and Ferdinand's mother Berengeria had been the daughter and heiress to the King of Castile (Alfonso III). On her father's death in 1217, there was so much opposition to the King of Leon gaining control over Castile that she renounced (not without some civil strife) her claim to the throne in favour of her eighteen year old son.

Thus when Ferdinand succeeded his father to the throne of Leon, the two Spanish Kingdoms would finally be united under a common monarch. Ferdinand's campaigns against the Saracens would recover much territory from the Arabs. He would capture Cordova in 1236 and Seville in 1248 and ultimately just Granada and Alicante would remain under Islamic control at the time of his death in 1252. With each expansion into Saracen territory Ferdinand would found Christian bishoprics and arrange for the building of numerous churches, monasteries and hospitals. The University of Saville was also established during his reign. Many miracles would later be ascribed to Ferdinand, and these would result in his name being canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671.
Date added: 05.03.05
Region: Western Europe, Southern Europe, Iberian Peninsula, Spain
Category: Politics, Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Battle of the Sajo River
Date: April 11th, 1241 A.D.
Description:
Having defeated three separate Hungarian detachments, the Mongols under Subutai came face to face with the main Hungarian Army under King Bela. King Bela had marched out of Pest, which was the Mongol's objective, to drive off Subutai's advance guard. In the resultant battle, the Mongols, although only half as strong as their opponents, attacked with all their strength and, employing every device of smoke, noise, arrows and stones, caused such panic amongst the Hungarians that such a debacle arose and King Bela's army was put to flight.
Date added: 10.09.05
Region: Eastern Europe, Hungary
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter
Source information: The Guinness History of Land Warfare (Kenneth Macksey, Guinness Superlatives Ltd, 1976)

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Battle at La Forbie
Date: October 17th, 1244 A.D.
Description:
Sultan as-Salih Ayyub demolished the forces of the Kingdom of Jerusalem led by Philip of Montfort and Walter, Count of Jaffa, at La Forbie near Gaza. Prior to this, Jerusalem had been lost to an Egyptian army. At La Forbie many knights were killed and the ranks of the military orders were almost wiped out.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Middle East, Crusader States
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Pietro D. Abano is Born
Date: 1250 A.D.
Description:
An Italian physician and philosopher who was brought to trial by the Inquisition twice.
Date added: 07.08.05
Region: Western Europe, Southern Europe, Italy
Category: Society, Religion
Source information: The Encyclopædia Britannica. A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, Eleventh Edition. Volume I. New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company, 1910. 7.

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War of St. Sabas
Date: 1256 A.D.
Description:
Beginning in 1256, commercial rivalry between the Genoese and the Venetians turned into a civil war. The conflict began over ownership of some houses in the monastery of St. Sabas in Acre and had been seething in the courts since 1251. In 1256 open fighting began in the streets of Acre between the two factions. The dispute was not just limited to the Genoese and the Venetians; the military orders and the nobility were also drawn into the conflict. The Venetians were supported by the Pisan and Provenēal merchants, Templars, Teutonic Knights, and the Order of St. Lazarus and of St. Thomas, as well as the majority of the Ibelins. The Genoese supporters included the Catalan merchants, the Hopitallers, Philip de Montfort and the Lord of Tyre. Several fierce battles ensued and in 1258 the Genoese fleet was defeated and then Philip de Monfert's attempt to take the city failed. In effect the Venetians had won and Acre became a sort of Venetian dependency. In 1261 a temporary peace was initiated, with the Genoese being barred from Acre but allowed to keep a footing in Tyre. In response to this, the Genoese signed the Treaty of Nymphaeum. The treaty was made with the Byzantines and threatened the Venetian control of trade in Byzantium. The main venue for battle now became the Byzantine Empire. Sea battles, however, still continued into 1270. Peace was finally established between the feuding factions in 1270 when St. Louis intervened. The Genoese were now allowed to return to their quarter in Acre—albeit, it now existed as ruins, and the Venetians went back to Tyre in 1277.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Middle East, Byzantine Empire
Category: Military, Economy, Politics
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Edward I Crowned King of England
Date: August 19th, 1274 A.D.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Henry III of England Dies
Date: November 16th, 1274 A.D.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Alexander III of Scotland Killed
Date: 1286 A.D.
Description:
In 1286 Alexander III of Scotland was killed in a hunting accident. His only heir was his 3 year old granddaughter, Margaret the 'Maid of Norway', the daughter of Erik of Norway and Alexander's own daughter Margaret. This event would mark the end of the period of peace and prosperity in Scotland, a period during which Scotland's borders had been defined and the Celtic, Saxon and Norman inhabitants of the kingdom had at last grown into a recognizable nation.

King Edward I of England saw this as an opportunity to unite both the English and Scottish kingdoms through the proposed marriage of the Scottish queen to his son Edward of Caernarvon. This idea floundered when Margaret died prematurely. Immediately almost a dozen claimants appeared willing to claim the vacant Scottish throne.
Date added: 05.05.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Scotland
Category: Politics, Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Edward I of England Favors John Baliol in Scotland
Date: 1296 A.D.
Description:
King Edward I of England, approached to adjudicate between the rival claimants (having first obtaining from them an oath of fealty), decided in favor of John Baliol, a man in his early forties, not very intelligent and rather weak-willed, for his choice as King of Scotland. Many thought however that under traditional Scottish custom Robert the Bruce would probably have had a greater claim.

From the start Edward treated Baliol with the utmost contempt, using him solely as a feudal puppet to carry out English policies in Scotland. Eventually, tiring of this constant humiliation, Baliol renounced his oath of allegiance and openly opposed Edward. The English King, already heavily involved in a bitter war with France in Gascony, and once again confronted by yet another Welsh rebellion, was enraged. He stormed north at the head of his army to deal with Baliol and the Scottish King's rebellious followers.

At the end of March 1296 Edward's army arrived outside the town of Berwick to find the citizens and the castle prepared for a long siege. The jeers and insults from the castle's battlements soon turned to alarm as the seasoned English soldiers, wild with rage, captured the town within minutes and there spent the rest of the day massacring its citizens. The castle garrison seeing this brutality decided wisely not to resist the English further and that evening opened the castle gates and surrendered.
Date added: 05.05.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Scotland, England
Category: Politics, Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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English Victory at Dunbar
Date: 1296 A.D.
Description:
After capturing Berwick, Edward I of England sent his most senior lieutenant, John de Warenne, with a detachment consisting of the best cavalry, numbers of Welsh bowmen, and a force of good infantry raised in the northern levies northwards to seize Dunbar. Upon his arrival at Dunbar, de Warenne found this castle also prepared for a siege, with the main Scottish army under the command of John Comyn, Earl of Buchan deployed outside its walls at a place called Spottsmuir. De Warenne had no choice but to ignore the castle and offer battle to the deployed Scottish army. The Scots, although not lacking courage, were ill disciplined. Breaking ranks, they hurled themselves upon the English army, only to be showered by thousands of arrows from the Welsh longbows. Broken and confused, the survivors were trampled into the ground by the English cavalry, riding amongst the Scots and slaughtering them with sword, lance, axe or mace. This total English victory cost the lives of some 10,000 Scottish soldiers. John Comyn, three other Scottish earls and more than a hundred of Comyn's Nobles being captured.

With Scottish armed resistance broken Edward followed his victory at Dunbar with a triumphant march through Scotland, taking his army further north than any previous ruler of Britain since the Romans. During this march he demanded Baliol's abdication at Strcathro near Brechin. If he thought that now he had resolved the disaffection of the Scots, he would very soon be faced with an even more deadly foe.
Date added: 05.05.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Scotland, England
Category: Politics, Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Battle of Stirling Bridge
Date: September 11th, 1297 A.D.
Description:
Charging English knights were cut off when Stirling Bridge collapsed and massacred by the Scots' long pikes.
Date added: 07.11.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Scotland, England
Category: Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Kingmaker

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Edward I of England Dies
Date: July 7th, 1307 A.D.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edward II Crowned King of England
Date: July 8th, 1307 A.D.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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The Trial of the Templars
Date: October 1307 A.D.
Description:
Suddenly, in October of 1307, King Philip IV ordered the arrest of the Templars. The claims against the Templars were comprised of having admission ceremony practices which included spitting on the cross and denying Christ. The order was also accused of worshipping idols and encouraging homosexual behavior. The pope of the time, Clement V, protested the actions taken by the French king but changed his mind after several of the Templars, including the Templar master, James of Molay, confessed. After these confessions, Clement V ordered all western rulers to do the same as Philip IV and arrest all Templars and seize their property. In 1310, France burned at the stake about 50 Templars who had recanted their confessions. By 1311 inquiries had been performed by inquisitors and prelates in all countries of the West. Overall the results were varied; many areas could not get any confessions. In late 1311 the Council of Vienne met to decide what should happen to the Templars. Two days after Philip IV had arrived at the council, in March of 1312, the pope pronounced the abolition of the order. Questions surrounding the guilt or innocence of the Templars and the motives behind Philip IV's arrest of the French Templars still exist to this day.
Date added: 09.01.05
Region: Western Europe, France
Category: Politics, Religion
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout
Source information: Forey, Alan. "The Military Orders 1120-1312." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith, 184-216. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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Battle of Bannockburn
Date: June 23rd, 1314 A.D.
Description:
Lasting from the 23rd to the 24th, Robert the Bruce of Scotland was able to defeat the English under King Edward II, setting the stage for Scottish independence.
Date added: 11.07.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Scotland, England
Category: Politics, Military, Society

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Pietro D. Abano Dies
Date: 1316 A.D.
Description:
An Italian physician and philosopher who died before the completion of his second trial with the Inquisition.
Date added: 07.08.05
Region: Western Europe, Southern Europe, Italy
Category: Society, Religion
Source information: The Encyclopædia Britannica. A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, Eleventh Edition. Volume I. New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company, 1910. 7.

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Edward III Crowned King of England
Date: January 25th, 1327 A.D.
Description:
Edward III was crowned king after reaching the age of majority.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edward II of England Deposed
Date: January 25th, 1327 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edward II of England Dies
Date: September 21st, 1327 A.D.
Description:
Edward II was almost certainly murdered in Berkeley Castle after having abdicated his throne.
Date added: 09.20.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Accession of King Philip VI of France
Date: April 1st, 1328 A.D.
Description:
The childless King Charles IV of France, having died on the 1st of March, had stipulated on his deathbed that unless his pregnant Queen should give birth to a son, then the crown should pass to his cousin, Philip, Count of Valois. On the 1st of April the Queen was delivered of a posthumous daughter. Count Philip immediately summoned an Assembly in Paris, which swiftly acknowledged him as their new king - Philip VI. It was a decision that was to have far reaching consequences.

During the assembly in Paris two envoys from England had pressed for the French crown to pass to King Edward III of England, the son of Charles' sister, Isabella. Despite the case put forward by Bishop Adam Orleton of Worcester that no woman had ever been legally been excluded from wearing the crown of France, the assembly concluded that in accordance with the Salic law of the ancient Franks, the crown could not be inherited by a woman.

Queen Isabel may not have been popular on either side of the channel. Her affair with her appalling lover the Regent Roger Mortimer, Earl of March (who had deposed King Edward II in 1326 and then had the same monarch brutally murdered in the following year) had for a while left Edward III as merely Isabel and Mortimer's puppet sovereign. In 1330, Edward's patience snapped. Breaking down the door to the queen's bedchamber he had Mortimer arrested and taken off to the Tower of London, where he would be executed on a charge of treason. His mother, Queen Isabel, was dispatched to permanent retirement at Castle Rising in Norfolk. The way was clear for the ambitious Edward to now commence his plans to oppose his rival in Paris and gain for himself the French crown that had been worn by his French ancestors.
Date added: 07.13.05
Region: Western Europe, France
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Battle of Sluys
Date: June 24th, 1340 A.D.
Description:
This was a naval battle during the Hundred Years' War between the English, led by Edward III, and the French in front of the town of Sluys, which is located between West Flanders and Zeeland in the area of the Netherlands. The English were able to almost completely destroy the French.

For more information about this battle, see the Medieval Wiki article.
Date added: 07.22.05
Region: Western Europe, Netherlands
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter
Source information: Seward, Desmond. The Hundred Years War. Constable and Robinson, 1978.

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Battle of Crecy
Date: August 25th, 1346 A.D.
Description:
Edward III defeated Phillip VI in the Battle of Crecy. French forces suffered heavy losses, while the English forces only suffered few casualties, largely due to the successful use of the longbow.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England, France
Category: Politics, Military

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Arrival of the Black Death
Date: 1347 A.D.
Description:
A deadly plague, known as the Black Death, arrived from Asia and rapidly spread throughout Europe from the Mediterranean trading Ports. Within two years most of Europe had been affected, and by the late 14th century the total population had been reduced by as much as one third.
Date added: 06.10.06
Region: Western Europe
Category: Society
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter
Source information: Jotischky, Andrew and Hull, Caroline. The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. Penguin Books, 2005.

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Calais Falls to England
Date: October 1347 A.D.
Description:
After an almost year-long siege, French Calais fell to Edward III of England. Calais would remain in English possession for over two hundred years and would remain a point of contention throughout the Hundred Years War.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England, France
Category: Politics, Military, Society

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Order of the Garter Established
Date: April 23rd, 1348 A.D.
Description:
Edward III establishes the first chivalric order of knighthood.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Society, Military

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Battle of Poitiers
Date: September 19th, 1356 A.D.
Description:
The Black Prince (Prince Edward) of England defeated the French in battle.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England, France
Category: Politics, Military

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Edward III of England Dies
Date: June 21st, 1377 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Richard II Crowned King of England
Date: July 16th, 1377 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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The Peasants' Revolt
Date: May 1381 A.D.
Description:
A poll tax levied by Edward III initiated this revolt in the eastern part of England (Essex and Kent) in late May, although most of the major events occurred in June. The revolt was not just confined to peasants of the lower class, but included artisans and others as well. The rebels made several demands of the king, including the abolition of serfdom. Eventually the revolt was suppressed, and all concessions that had been made were withdrawn.
Date added: 11.07.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Military, Society

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Execution of John Ball
Date: July 15th, 1381 A.D.
Description:
"From the beginning all were created equal by nature, slavery was introduced through the unjust oppression of worthless men, against the will of God; for, if God had wanted to create slaves, he would surely have decided at the beginning of the world who was to be slave and who master." (Sermon at Blackheath, 1381]

One of the leaders of the Peasants' Revolt, John Ball was an English Priest who had already been imprisoned in Maidstone for disagreeing with the Archbishop of Canterbury. John Ball was a stout follower of John Wycliffe and a believer in social equality. At the outbreak of the revolt he was released from prison, and on Blackheath, near London, he incited the rebels by preaching against the ruling classes. When the revolt collapsed he escaped, but was captured near Coventry and ultimately hung at St. Albans.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Society, Politics

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Richard II of England Deposed
Date: August 19th, 1399 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Henry IV Crowned King of England
Date: October 13th, 1399 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Richard II of England Dies
Date: 1400 A.D.
Description:
The king was probably murdered while he was imprisoned at Pontefract Castle.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Henry IV of England Dies
Date: March 20th, 1413 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Henry V Crowned King of England
Date: April 9th, 1413 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Cambridge Plot
Date: 1415 A.D.
Description:
The Cambridge plot (also known as the Southampton plot) was a conspiracy planned by Richard, Earl of Cambridge, Sir Thomas Grey, and Henry, 3rd Baron Scrope. They planned to assassinate King Henry V and his brothers at Southampton prior to the king's departure for France. They then planned to proclaim Edmund de Mortimer, (the heir presumptive of Richard II) 5th Earl of March, as the new King. Edmund, however, revealed the plot, and the three conspirators were duly executed.
Date added: 10.09.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter
Source information: Kenyon, J.P. The Wordsworth Dictionary of British History. Wordsworth Editions, 1998.

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Death of John Hus
Date: July 6th, 1415 A.D.
Description:
John Hus, a former University master turned theologian and a founder of the Hussite movement in Bohemia, is executed.
Date added: 06.14.06
Region: Eastern Europe, Bohemia
Category: Religion, Miltiary, Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Battle of Agincourt
Date: October 25th, 1415 A.D.
Description:
One of the most significant battles of the Hundred Years War, this battle was an English victory (under Henry V) over the French (under Charles VI). The superiority of the English longbow was again demonstrated against France's heavily armored knights.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England, France
Category: Military, Politics

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Treaty of Troyes
Date: May 21st, 1420 A.D.
Description:
This treaty was an agreement between England and France during the Hundred Years War. According to its terms, the French King Charles VI betrothed his daughter Catherine of Valois to Henry V and made the English King his rightful heir in place of the dauphin.

When Henry V died two years later, the crown of both countries was in effect inherited by the infant Henry VI (who was born 1421). Henry VI would be crowned King of England at Westminster in 1429 and King of France at Paris the following year.
Date added: 10.05.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England, France
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Henry V of England Dies
Date: September 1st, 1422 A.D.
Description:
Henry V, King if England and the victor of Agincourt, dies of dysentery in 1422 in Bois de Vincennes, France.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, France, British Isles, England
Category: Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Henry VI Crowned King of England
Date: November 6th, 1429 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Execution of Joan of Arc
Date: May 30th, 1431 A.D.
Description:
Joan of Arc is executed at Rouen. The Maid of Orleans, aged just 19, had been captured by the Burgundians and handed over to the English. After a lengthy trial she was found guilty of being a relapsed heretic and duly burnt at the stake. She was canonised in 1920.
Date added: 08.05.05
Region: Western Europe, France
Category: Military, Religion
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Birth of Mehmet II
Date: March 30th, 1432 A.D.
Description:
The future conqueror of Constantinople was born in Adrianople as the third son to Sultan Murad II of the Ottoman Turks. Over the next decade his two eldest brothers died, and on February 2, 1451, his father the sultan dies. Mehmet II comes to power as the next Ottoman sultan and to ensure that his claim to the throne is not challenged, he has his father's youngest heir killed. On May 29th, 1453 Mehmet and his army take Constantinople as their own. He was only 21 years old when Constantinople fell to him. On May 3, 1481, the destroyer of two Empires, four kingdoms and eleven principalities died at age 49.
Date added: 08.28.05
Region: Middle East
Category: Politics, Military
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Fall of Cherbourgh
Date: August 12th, 1450 A.D.
Description:
After 33 years of English rule, the French succeed in recovering all of Normandy. Now only the Channel Islands would remain under English control. Although tthe war would continue for another three years, the ruinous cost of financing garrisons, combined with the ending of the Burgundian-Almanac civil war in France, would spell the end to Plantagenet ambitions in Continental Europe.
Date added: 08.05.05
Region: Western Europe, France
Category: Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter

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Fall of Constantinople
Date: May 29th, 1453 A.D.
Description:
In 1453, Constantinople fell to Mehmet II of the Ottoman Empire. Constantine XI, the Byzantine emperor at the time, was killed in the fighting to take the city. This marked the end of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Date added: 07.25.05
Region: Byzantine Empire, Southeastern Europe
Category: Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Natalie Kohout

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Battle of Castillon
Date: July 17th, 1453 A.D.
Description:
The vanguard of the small English army arrived at the French camp in the early hours of the morning, only to witness the whole French army in flight before them. The English commander, John Talbot, charged up to the camp's palisade wall in pursuit of the enemy—only to find the parapets manned by hundreds of cannon, and thousands of archers. The French army had hidden while the servants and valets fled the field as a lure to the Englishmen. Talbot was killed and his army routed, resulting in complete English expulsion from France and the loss of Aquitaine, which had been the pride of England's crown for over three hundred years.
Date added: 07.11.05
Region: Western Europe, France
Category: Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Kingmaker

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First Battle of St. Albans
Date: May 22nd, 1455 A.D.
Description:
In the opening battle of the Wars of the Roses, Richard, Duke of York, and his allies the Yorkists attacked King Henry VI's smaller army at the fortified town of St Albans. After fierce street fighting to no avail, the Earl of Warwick took the Yorkist reserve force and found a back-way through the gardens to the town's market place. His unexpected charge broke the shocked Lancastrian army in two and won the day. As the rout started King Henry was taken into the Yorkist lord's custody, to become their puppet.
Date added: 07.11.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Kingmaker

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The Battle of Blore Heath
Date: September 23rd, 1459 A.D.
Description:
A battle during the Wars of the Roses in which the Earl of Salisbury defeated a larger force of Lancastrians under the command of Lord Audley.
Date added: 03.26.06
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military
Contributor(s): Alan Chanter
Source information: Warwick The Kingmaker & The Wars of the Roses, Paul Murray Kendall (Sphere Books, 1957).

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King James II of Scotland Dies
Date: 1460 A.D.
Description:
While laying siege to Roxburgh Castle, a cannon blew up instantly killing the king.
Date added: 07.11.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, Scotland
Category: Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Kingmaker

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Battle of Towton
Date: March 29th, 1461 A.D.
Description:
Towton was the bloodiest battle during the Wars of the Roses. The battle was a serious loss for the Lancastrians.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics

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Edward IV Crowned King of England
Date: June 28th, 1461 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Battle of Edgecote Moor
Date: July 26th, 1469 A.D.
Description:
By the late 1460s, the Earl of Warwick, who strove harder than any other man to put Edward IV on the throne, was plotting rebellion. The King was heading north to deal with local risings when Warwick and the Duke of Clarence, the king's brother, declared for the rebels. The rebels managed to avoid Edward's army but were forced to engage the Earls of Pembroke and Devon's men at Edgecote Moor. Warwick joined them later that day and routed the royal army. Edward IV was captured soon after the rebel victory.
Date added: 07.11.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Kingmaker

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Battle of Barnet
Date: April 14th, 1471 A.D.
Description:
When the Earl of Warwick reinstated the old king Henry VI in 1470, Edward IV was forced into exile in Burgundy, where he was lent money and men to retake his kingdom. He invaded England and the two armies met in battle one extremely foggy morning at Barnet. Due to the bad visibility the two armies were not aligned and were both able to flank each other. The Lancastrian Earl of Oxford used this to his advantage, routing the enemy opposite him. When he rejoined the battle with 500 of his men, the whole line had rotated ninety degrees because of the pressure on the flanks, and instead of charging into the backs of the Yorkist ranks, he attacked his own men, killing Warwick's own brother, John Neville. A quarter of Warwick forces quit the field as a cry of 'treason' went up. As the battle ended Warwick ran towards the horseline, now some distance away, but was cut off and killed. Over three thousand men lay dead on the battlefield besides him.
Date added: 07.11.05
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Military, Politics
Contributor(s): Kingmaker

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Battle of Tewkesbury
Date: May 4th, 1471 A.D.
Description:
A battle during the Wars of the Roses between Edward IV, who led a Yorkist army, and the Duke of Somerset, who led the Lancastrians on behalf of Queen Margaret. This battle was a Yorkist defeat of the Lancastrians. Margaret's young son was killed during the battle, paving the way for Edward IV's continued reign.
Date added: 11.07.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Military, Society

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Henry VI of England Dies
Date: May 27th, 1471 A.D.
Description:
Henry VI was executed by Edward IV following Henry's defeat at Tewkesbury.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edward IV of England Dies
Date: April 9th, 1483 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edward V Accedes Throne of England
Date: April 9th, 1483 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Edward V of England Deposed
Date: June 25th, 1483 A.D.
Description:
There are rumors that Edward V was murdered in the Tower of London along with Richard, duke of York after being imprisoned there by their uncle, who would become Richard III.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Richard III Crowned King of England
Date: July 6th, 1483 A.D.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Richard III of England Dies
Date: August 22nd, 1485 A.D.
Description:
Henry Tudor defeated and killed Richard at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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Battle of Bosworth
Date: August 22nd, 1485 A.D.
Description:
This was the last battle of the Wars of the Roses. Henry Tudor defeated and killed Richard III (a Yorkist) in battle. After the battle Henry was crowned king, establishing the Tudor dynasty.
Date added: 11.07.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics, Military

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Henry VII Crowned King of England
Date: October 30th, 1485 A.D.
Description:
Henry VII was crowned king after defeating and killing Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
Date added: 09.30.04
Region: Western Europe, British Isles, England
Category: Politics

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